PowerShell: Find Those Inactive Users and Computers – Active Directory #quest


PowerShell: Find Those Inactive Users and Computers

Active Directory

One of the most common tasks you’ll perform in Active Directory on a regular basis is finding the users and computers that are no longer active. You may want to disable them, or even remove them, depending upon your organization’s policies.

While it’s not overly difficult to do this in Active Directory Users and Computers . there are some compelling reasons to tackle this task in Windows PowerShell. For one, you’ll be able to schedule this to run as a task, meaning it’s one less thing you have to worry about. Another advantage is that you could have PowerShell disable the accounts (for example) and e-mail you a report – again saving time and effort.

Your first task will be to define what an “inactive user” looks like. In any Windows Server 2003 and later domain, you could rely on the lastLogonTimestamp attribute, which is replicated between domain controllers. Keep in mind that it’s not a high-priority attribute, which means it can be off by a few days if you’re querying a domain controller other than the one a user last logged on to. A problem with that attribute, though, is that it’s in a really weird format rather than a normal date/time format.

Another option might be to look at an attribute such as passwordLastSet. After all, if a user hasn’t set their password in a given amount of time, then they’re very likely inactive. Even if they’re still with the organization, you’ll want to look into why they’ve got an old password!

There are a couple of ways you could go about querying this information. I’ll rely on the Active Directory module that ships with Windows Server 2008 R2; it’s also available for Windows 7 as part of the downloadable Remote Server Administration Toolkit (RSAT – http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=7887 ). This can natively talk to a Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controller regardless of the domain functional level; it can also talk to older domain controllers if you’ve installed the Management Gateway Service, which is a free download from Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=2852 ).

Here’s the first way you might make the query:

I’ve set that to retrieve all users whose passwords haven’t been set in the last 365 days – certainly worth looking into, even if they’re still with the organization. The problem with this approach is that it queries every single user from Active Directory, then filters through them in your computer’s memory. Not exactly efficient. A better approach would be to have Active Directory just return the users that match your criteria:

PS C:\ $cutoff = (Get-Date).AddDays(-365)

Tuesday, November 30, 2010 8:31:13 AM

That’s much more efficient, although keep in mind it won’t find any users who have never changed their password, because passwordLastSet will be $null for those users. Unfortunately, I’ve not found an efficient way of putting “null” into that –Filter parameter. Instead, I’ve had to resort to pulling over every user:

PS C:\ Import-Module ActiveDirectory
PS C:\ Get-ADUser –filter * -prop PasswordLastSet | Where < $_.passwordLastSet –eq $null >

Again, that’s not very efficient, so you’re going to want to run it when your domain controller has some free time. In a test domain of 20,000 users, that took about 5 minutes to run, so it’s not horrible, but I’m sure the domain controller and my PC each had to work pretty hard. Notice that I had to explicitly tell Get-ADUser to retrieve the passwordLastSet property, because that isn’t included in the default property set that Active Directory delivers.

Don Jones is a Senior Partner and Principal Technologist for Concentrated Technology, LLC, an IT consulting and analysis firm. He’s the author of more than 35 books.


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Self Service Portal For Active Directory Download – Free Download Self


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Email Archiving Solutions for Exchange Server #archiving, #email, #exchange, #microsoft, #outlook,


MessageSolution Award Winning Archiving eDiscovery Platform for Microsoft Exchange Office 365

Working with technology partner Microsoft closely in the past decade, MessageSolution product development team has achieved the following:

  • Fully support with Outlook 2011 Mac Integrated Search (First integration in the market)
  • Fully support Exchange 2010 (First Exchange 2010 Web Service Protocol Integration in the market for both On-Premise and the Cloud Archiving & eDiscovery implementations)
  • Native integration with Outlook 2000, 2003, 2007 and 2011 (With “0” footprint on Exchange consuming “0” resource from Exchange server for offloaded data retrieval)
  • Fully support Exchange 5.5, 2000, 2003, 2007,2010 and 2013
  • Fully support Windows Server 2008 64-bit Platform (First in the market enhanced 64-bit application)

    Exchange 5.5, 2000, 2003, 2007, 2010 and Exchange 2013

    Exchange Email Server Configuration Guides

    Voted the Best Exchange Archiving Solution by Microsoft Exchange administrators and Outlook users on MSExchange.org for multiple years.


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  • Mongolia Travel Guide, Tours Mongolia, Adventure Travel Mongolia, Active Adventure tours

    #mongolia travel

    Ultimate Mongolia

    Welcome to the Ancient land of the Great Mongolian Empire.

    Travel All Mongolia invites you to join us this coming summer for an experience of lifetime in the awesome landscapes of Mongolian, from mountains, to lakes, to hot dry desert, to rolling hills of open grassland. A land of undiscovered nature and a unique culture of unforgettable experiences of nomadic herdsman heritage that spans thousands of years since antiquity.

    We offer you a variety of trips throughout Mongolia including but not limited to, horse rides across the landscape, camel rides, visits to the Gobi desert for tours, research, and study, trekking adventures across Mongolia,Trans-Siberian tours, train ticket booking, horse and camel tours, kayak tours, andjeep tours by road. All you need to do is book your flight to Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia and inform us of your arrival and departure dates, along with what you are interested in doing in Mongolia on your tour here. We will custom plan your stay for you.

    From the moment of your arrival, until your departure, leave the planning to us and just enjoy your adventure. All of our trips include your meals, professional drivers and tour guides who are experts in showing you around our beautiful countryside.

    You can travel to Mongolia by rail on the Trans-Siberian Express, from Beijing, People’s Republic of China (PRC), or fly in to Ulaanbaatar on China Airlines from Beijing PRC, MIAT Mongolian Airlines, Aeroflot from Moscow, Korean Air from Seoul, South Korea, or directly on Mongolian Airlines from Beijing, China, PRC or Berlin, Germany.

    Yours sincerely

    Travel All Mongolia Team


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    Definition of Solar Power and How it Works #active #solar #power


    Definition of Solar Power and How it Works

    by REBECCA LAKE Last Updated: Sep 17, 2011

    Rebecca Lake is a freelance writer and virtual assistant living in the southeast. She has been writing professionally since 2009 for various websites. Lake received her master’s degree in criminal justice from Charleston Southern University.

    What is solar power and how does it work? Photo Credit Solar image by Thomas Leiss from a href= http://www.fotolia.com Fotolia.com /a

    A major part of the green living movement involves the use of alternative energy sources to replace our consumption of traditional fossil-fuel generated electricity. This alternative energy can be generated by wind or by solar power, which has become and increasingly popular way to power residential and commerical structures. Solar power is derived directly from the sun’s natural light and its use is both environmentally-friendly and cost-effective over the long term.


    In the simplest terms, solar power is energy that comes from the sun. The U.S. Energy Information Administration defines solar energy as the sun’s rays, also known as solar radiation, that reach the Earth which can then be converted into other forms of energy, like heat and electricity. Solar power is a renewable and sustainable energy source and can be used around the world to generate electricity for a number of different purposes (See References 2).

    Solar Panels

    Solar power can be converted into electricity in one of two ways. The first way is through the use of solar cells or photovoltaic devices, commonly known as solar panels (See References 1). Solar panels are composed of semiconductor materials, including two sheets of silicon separated by an electrical field which are designed to capture the photons of energy contained in sunlight. The N-layer is made of silicon atoms that have extra electrons while the P-layer is made of silicon atoms that are missing electrons. Sunlight directs electrons from the P-layer to the N-layer, and by creating a circuit back to the P-layer, electrical energy is generated (See References 3).

    Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Solar thermal power plants use energy contained in sunlight to heat fluids to very high temperatures. The fluid is circulated through pipes where its heat is transferred to water and converted to steam. The steam is then changed into mechanical energy in a turbine and into electricity by a conventional generator that is connected to the turbine (See References 1). Solar thermal power systems may be categorized as a solar trough, which is most common, a solar dish or a solar power tower.


    Solar power can be used to generate electricity to homes, businesses and industrial structures. Solar power can also be used to fuel a number of other electronic devices, including water heaters, furnaces, ovens, watches and phone chargers.


    Solar power is a renewable energy source whose supply is virtually inexhaustible. The use of solar power generates no greenhouse gas emissions, air or water pollution and it doesn’t require the use of nonrenewable natural resources. Solar power can be used to fuel both small- and large-scale electrical systems and it is fairly easy to convert to electric power (See References 2).


    According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, solar power is not without its disadvantages, including a potential threat to the environment. Solar panels may contain potentially toxic chemicals and substances which can contribute to air and water pollution if they are leaked. Solar thermal power plants also have the potential to threaten the animal species located in the area surrounding them.

    Get the latest tips on diet, exercise and healthy living

    Copyright 2017 Leaf Group Ltd. Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the LIVESTRONG.COM Terms of Use. Privacy Policy and Copyright Policy. The material appearing on LIVESTRONG.COM is for educational use only. It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. LIVESTRONG is a registered trademark of the LIVESTRONG Foundation. The LIVESTRONG Foundation and LIVESTRONG.COM do not endorse any of the products or services that are advertised on the web site. Moreover, we do not select every advertiser or advertisement that appears on the web site-many of the advertisements are served by third party advertising companies. Ad Choices


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    Active solar energy system #active #solar #energy #system, #air #collector, #liquid-based


    active solar energy system

    An active solar energy system is a solar water or space-heating system that uses pumps or fans to circulate the fluid from the solar collectors to a storage tank subsystem. There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid either liquid or air that is heated in the solar energy collectors. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a “hydronic” collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an air collector.

    Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation. then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which the heat is distributed. If the system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well suited for radiant heating systems. boilers with hot water radiators, and even absorption heat pumps and coolers. Both air and liquid systems can supplement forced air systems. To learn more about these two types of active solar heating, see the following sections:

    • solar air heating
    • solar liquid heating

    Economics and other benefits of active solar heating systems

    Active solar heating systems are most cost-effective when they are used for most of the year, that is, in cold climates with good solar resources. They are most economical if they are displacing more expensive heating fuels, such as electricity, propane, and oil heat. Some states offer sales tax exemptions, income tax credits or deductions, and property tax exemptions or deductions for solar energy systems so that is good information to have handy when you are filing your taxes for the year. It could essentially reimburse you for quite a bit of the cost of the system.

    The cost of an active solar heating system will vary. Commercial systems range from $30 to $80 per square foot of collector area, installed. Usually, the larger the system, the less it costs per unit of collector area. Commercially available collectors come with warranties of 10 years or more, and should easily last decades longer. The economics of an active space heating system improve if it also heats domestic water, because an otherwise idle collector can heat water in the summer.

    Heating your home with an active solar energy system can significantly reduce your fuel bills in the winter. A solar heating system will also reduce the amount of air pollution and greenhouse gases that result from your use of fossil fuels such as oil, propane, and natural gas for heating or that may be used to generate the electricity that you use.

    Selecting and sizing a solar heating system

    Selecting the appropriate solar energy system depends on factors such as the site, design, and heating needs of your house. Local covenants may restrict your options; for example homeowner associations may not allow you to install solar collectors on certain parts of your house (although many homeowners have been successful in challenging such covenants).

    The local climate, the type and efficiency of the collector(s), and the collector area determine how much heat a solar heating system can provide. It is usually most economical to design an active system to provide 40%�80% of the home’s heating needs. Systems providing less than 40% of the heat needed for a home are rarely cost-effective except when using solar air heater collectors that heat one or two rooms and require no heat storage. A well-designed and insulated home that incorporates passive solar heating techniques will require a smaller and less costly heating system of any type, and may need very little supplemental heat other than solar.

    Besides the fact that designing an active system to supply enough heat 100% of the time is generally not practical or cost effective, most building codes and mortgage lenders require a back-up heating system. Supplementary or back-up systems supply heat when the solar system can not meet heating requirements. They can range from a wood stove to a conventional central heating system.

    Controls for solar heating systems

    Controls for solar heating systems are usually more complex than those of a conventional heating system, because they have to analyze more signals and control more devices (including the conventional, backup heating system). Solar controls use sensors, switches, and/or motors to operate the system. The system uses other controls to prevent freezing or extremely high temperatures in the collectors.

    The heart of the control system is a differential thermostat, which measures the difference in temperature between the collectors and storage unit. When the collectors are 10��20�F (5.6��11�C) warmer than the storage unit, the thermostat turns on a pump or fan to circulate water or air through the collector to heat the storage medium or the house.

    The operation, performance, and cost of these controls vary. Some control systems monitor the temperature in different parts of the system to help determine how it is operating. The most sophisticated systems use microprocessors to control and optimize heat transfer and delivery to storage and zones of the house.

    It is possible to use a solar panel to power low voltage, direct current (DC) blowers (for air collectors) or pumps (for liquid collectors). The output of the solar panels matches available solar heat gain to the solar collector. With careful sizing, the blower or pump speed is optimized for efficient solar gain to the working fluid. During low sun conditions the blower or pump speed is slow, and during high solar gain, they run faster.

    When used with a room air collector, separate controls may not be necessary. This also ensures that the system will operate in the event of utility power outage. A solar power system with battery storage can also provide power to operate a central heating system, though this is expensive for large systems.

    Building codes, covenants, and regulations for solar heating systems

    Before installing a solar energy system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building.

    Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

    The matter of building code and zoning compliance for a solar system installation is typically a local issue. Even if a statewide building code is in effect, it’s usually enforced locally by your city, county, or parish. Common problems homeowners have encountered with building codes include the following:

    • Exceeding roof load
    • Unacceptable heat exchangers
    • Improper wiring
    • Unlawful tampering with potable water supplies

    Potential zoning issues include these:

    • Obstructing sideyards
    • Erecting unlawful protrusions on roofs
    • Siting the system too close to streets or lot boundaries

    Special area regulations such as local community, subdivision, or homeowner’s association covenants also demand compliance. These covenants, historic district regulations, and flood-plain provisions can easily be overlooked. To find out what’s needed for local compliance, contact your local jurisdiction’s zoning and building enforcement divisions and any appropriate homeowner’s, subdivision, neighborhood, and/or community association(s).

    Installing and maintaining your solar heating system

    How well an active solar energy system performs depends on effective siting, system design, and installation, and the quality and durability of the components. The collectors and controls now manufactured are of high quality. The biggest factor now is finding an experienced contractor who can properly design and install the system.

    Once a system is in place, it has to be properly maintained to optimize its performance and avoid breakdowns. Different systems require different types of maintenance, but you should figure on 8�16 hours of maintenance annually. You should set up a calendar with a list of maintenance tasks that the component manufacturers and installer recommends.

    Most solar water heaters are automatically covered under your homeowner’s insurance policy. However, damage from freezing is generally not. Contact your insurance provider to find out what its policy is. Even if your provider will cover your system, it is best to inform them in writing that you own a new system.

    Related category


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    The Life of Brian – Active Directory Health Checks for Domain


    Active Directory Health Checks for Domain Controllers

    I ve just written a small article on the common steps that I perform when doing health checks on domain controllers. AdminPrep is not up right now so I ll post the health check stuff here. I would love for you to come back here and let me know what else you do when you do health checks on domain controllers.

    I get asked over and over about what I do when I m performing a health check on a domain controller. Below you will see some of the commands that I use when I need to ensure my domain controllers are still healthy after some sort of change like patching.

    The Event Viewer is always a must. I look at all the logs before and after the update to the domain controller looking for abnormal events. With the pre-check I usually go back a month of logs to get more historical data. I then run through a couple command line utilities. One thing I always do is pipe my commands out to a text document. This just makes it easier for me to read and also search for failed events.

    Dcdiag.exe /v c:temppre_dcdiag.txt
    This is a must and will always tell you if there is trouble with your DCs and/or services associated with it

    Netdiag.exe /v c:temppre_Netdiag.txt
    This will let me know if there are issues with the networking components on the DC. This along with the post test also is a quick easy way to ensure the patch I just installed is really installed (just check the top of the log)

    Netsh dhcp show server c:temppre_dhcp.txt
    Some may not do this but I ve felt the pain of a DHCP server somehow not being authorized after a patch. This allows me verify the server count and names.

    Repadmin /showreps c:temppre_rep_partners.txt
    This shows all my replication and if it was successful or not. Just be aware that Global Catalogs will have more info here than a normal domain controller.

    repadmin /replsum /errorsonly c:temppre_repadmin_err.txt
    This is the one that always takes forever but will let you know who you are having issues replicating with.

    After I run and check the pre_ scripts I update my server. When it is done I run post_ scripts which are the same thing but this allows me to verify them against the scripts earlier.

    Hopefully this helps you when you troubleshoot your domain controllers but by no way is this an all encompassing list of things to do. These are the standard steps I take but I would love to hear what you all do as well.


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