SQL Server 2005: How To Restore a Database from a Backup


SQL Server 2005: How To Restore a Database from a Backup

Posted February 7, 2007 by Rob Rogers in Database

Your database is down, your users are in a panic, what do you do. If you have been performing routine backups of your database, you can restore it to the point of the most recent backup. To restore your database, follow these steps:

1. Open SQL Server 2005 Management Studio.

2. Connect to the appropriate server.

4. Right-click the desired database, mouseover Tasks. mouseover Restore and select Database .

5. The Restore Database window will appear.

6. Ensure that the correct database name appears in the To database field. If not, select it from the dropdown.

7. Under Source for restore. select the From device radio button.

8. Click the button next to the textbox to select the device to restore from.

9. The Specify Backup window will appear.

10. Click Add and locate and select the backup file from the Locate Backup File Window. Click OK.

11. Under Select the backup sets to restore. select all three backups (full, transaction log, and differential).

12. In the left pane, select Options .

13. Under Recovery state. ensure that the Restore with Recovery radio button is selected.

14. Click OK to begin restoring the database.

15. Once the restore is complete, a notification box will appear. Click OK to close the box. You have now restored your database to the most recent state.

I taken backup of database from Sql server 2005 from other PC and try to Restore it on my PC. Both having Windows authentication. But i am facing following error

System.Data.Sqlclient.sqlError:The media set has 2 media families but only 1 are provided.All member must be provided.(Microsoft.Sqlserver.Smo).

IS it problem of Ownar. because owanr of .bak file is different from where i try to restore it.

This is not the problem of owner, it is just because while selecting the restoring device there must be two paths (1. Default by Microsoft, 2. Given by you).
So delete the default path given by SQL Server itself, so it remains only one path that is given by you.
Do let me know in case this doesn t work also

i have stored mdf file and ldf file in dotnet solution file. i have copied my project from another system. i have to restore the database inorder to run my dotnet project.
i have followed your procedure, but when i click the ok button, it shows error.

please help me .

How To attach database sql

mdf and ldf files are not sql2005 based. its sql 2000. so install that and not need to restore. you right click the database in enterprise manager in sql2000..attach the MDF file from location. then run the program

Great step by step guidance. Worked a treat for me who is a complete novice

i need to restore my database in sql server 2005 and as i follow the procedure above there still an error. it shows this:

system.data.sqlclient.sqlerror:directory lookup the file C:program filesmicrosoft sql serverMSSQLDATASTUDENTS INFOREMATION.MDF failed with the operating system error 3(the system cannot findthe path specified.).(microsoft.sqlserver.express.smo)

im using windows 7 and visual studio 2008

while restoring my bakup file in MS SQL 2005 it gives

System.Data.SqlClient.SqlError: Directory lookup for the file c:Program FilesMicrosoft SQL ServerMSSQL.1MSSQLDATAtest_infoguideDatabase.mdf failed with the operating system error 3(The system cannot find the path specified.). (Microsoft.SqlServer.Smo)

Me too findind this error while restoration what does it means plz suggest any suitable way to remove this

i restore my database in sqlserver after restore default it display some path(D:\OTHERS\PROJECTS\TENDERMANAGEMENTSYSTEM\APP_DATA\TMSDATABASE.MDF) but i store my db in some other location..

plz help me how to clear this error

sql server by default provides some path u can restore ur db in ur own location jst click on that path and specify ur own path.


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What is database management system (DBMS)? Definition from #database #management #schools


database management system (DBMS)

A database management system (DBMS) is system software for creating and managing databases. The DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data .

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A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs. ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.

The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified — and the database schema. which defines the database’s logical structure. These three foundational elements help provide concurrency. security, data integrity and uniform administration procedures. Typical database administration tasks supported by the DBMS include change management. performance monitoring/tuning and backup and recovery. Many database management systems are also responsible for automated rollbacks. restarts and recovery as well as the logging and auditing of activity.

The DBMS is perhaps most useful for providing a centralized view of data that can be accessed by multiple users, from multiple locations, in a controlled manner. A DBMS can limit what data the end user sees, as well as how that end user can view the data, providing many views of a single database schema. End users and software programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located or on what type of storage media it resides because the DBMS handles all requests.

The DBMS can offer both logical and physical data independence. That means it can protect users and applications from needing to know where data is stored or having to be concerned about changes to the physical structure of data (storage and hardware). As long as programs use the application programming interface (API ) for the database that is provided by the DBMS, developers won’t have to modify programs just because changes have been made to the database.

With relational DBMSs (RDBMSs ), this API is SQL. a standard programming language for defining, protecting and accessing data in a RDBMS.

Popular types of DBMSes

Popular database models and their management systems include:

Relational database management system (RDMS) – adaptable to most use cases, but RDBMS Tier-1 products can be quite expensive.

NoSQL DBMS – well-suited for loosely defined data structures that may evolve over time.

In-memory database management system (IMDBMS) – provides faster response times and better performance.

Columnar database management system (CDBMS) – well-suited for data warehouses that have a large number of similar data items.

Cloud-based data management system – the cloud service provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the DBMS.

Advantages of a DBMS

Using a DBMS to store and manage data comes with advantages, but also overhead. One of the biggest advantages of using a DBMS is that it lets end users and application programmers access and use the same data while managing data integrity. Data is better protected and maintained when it can be shared using a DBMS instead of creating new iterations of the same data stored in new files for every new application. The DBMS provides a central store of data that can be accessed by multiple users in a controlled manner.

Central storage and management of data within the DBMS provides:

  • Data abstraction and independence
  • Data security
  • A locking mechanism for concurrent access
  • An efficient handler to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data
  • The ability to swiftly recover from crashes and errors, including restartability and recoverability
  • Robust data integrity capabilities
  • Logging and auditing of activity
  • Simple access using a standard application programming interface (API)
  • Uniform administration procedures for data

Another advantage of a DBMS is that it can be used to impose a logical, structured organization on the data. A DBMS delivers economy of scale for processing large amounts of data because it is optimized for such operations.

A DBMS can also provide many views of a single database schema. A view defines what data the user sees and how that user sees the data. The DBMS provides a level of abstraction between the conceptual schema that defines the logical structure of the database and the physical schema that describes the files, indexes and other physical mechanisms used by the database. When a DBMS is used, systems can be modified much more easily when business requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disrupting the existing system and applications can be insulated from how data is structured and stored.

Of course, a DBMS must perform additional work to provide these advantages, thereby bringing with it the overhead. A DBMS will use more memory and CPU than a simple file storage system. And, of course, different types of DBMSes will require different types and levels of system resources.

This was last updated in January 2015

Next Steps

Different types of DBMSes require different levels of system resources, so it’s important to understand the types and categories of DBMSes. Expert Craig S. Mullins evaluates different types of DBMSes to help you with your purchasing decisions.

Find in-depth information to help you decide if a Relational DBMS. NoSQL DBMS or in-memory DBMS is the right fit for your organization.

Expert Craig S. Mullins reviews the top RDBMS products on the market to help with your decision-making process.

Continue Reading About database management system (DBMS)

Related Terms

flat file A flat file contains records that have no structured interrelationship. A flat file typically consists of a text file, from which. See complete definition Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system, or RDBMS, that supports a wide variety of transaction processing. See complete definition Quiz: Database Basics After reading the question, click on the answer that you think is correct. See complete definition


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RE: Recovery until point in time #recover #database #until #time


RE: Recovery until point in time.

From. Elliott, Patrick Patrick.Elliott_at_bestbuy.com
Date. Wed, 5 Jul 2000 13:42:03 -0500
Message-Id. 10549.111254 fatcity com

Here are the instructions from the manual for 8i: Performing Time-Based Recovery
This section describes how to perform the time-based media recovery procedure in these stages:

Back up the database as a precaution and correct any media failures. DATABASE statement with the UNTIL TIME option. Note: If you are performing time-based, incomplete recovery using a backup control file and have read-only tablespaces, contact Oracle Support before attempting this procedure.

To prepare for time-based recovery:
Follow the same preparation procedure described in the section Performing Cancel-Based Recovery
To restore the files necessary for time-based recovery and bring them online:

If the current control files do not match the physical structure of the database at the intended time of recovery, restore a backup control file that reflects the database’s physical file structure at the point at which incomplete media recovery should finish. To determine which control file backup to use:
* Review the list of files that corresponds to the current control file and each control file backup to determine the correct control file to use.
* If necessary, replace all current control files of the database with the correct control file backup.
* Alternatively, create a new control file to replace the missing one.

Note: If a database control file cannot function or be replaced with a control file backup, take it out of the CONTROL_FILES parameter list in the parameter file associated with the database.

Restore backups of all the datafiles of the database. All backups used to replace existing datafiles must have been taken before the intended time of recovery. For example, if you intend to recover to January 2 at 2:00 p.m. then restore all datafiles with backups completed before this time. Follow these guidelines: restore a backup of this file, since it will no longer be used for the database after recovery completes.
The hardware problem causing the failure has been solved and all datafiles can be restored to their default locations Restore the files and skip Step 5 performi.htm of this procedure. A hardware problem persists Restore damaged datafiles to an alternative storage device.

Note: Files in read-only tablespaces should be offline if you are using a control file backup. Otherwise, the recovery will try to update the headers of the read-only files.

Start SQL*Plus and connect to Oracle with administrator privileges. For example, enter:

% sqlplus sys/change_on_install_at_prod1 locations in Step 2 performi.htm , indicate the new locations of these files to the control file of the associated database. For example, enter:

ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE /oracle/dbs/df2.f TO /oracle/newloc/df2.f ; datafiles of the database must be online unless an offline tablespace was taken offline normally. For example, to guarantee that a datafile named user1 (a fully specified filename) is online, enter the following statement:


If a backup of the control file is being used with this incomplete recovery (that is, a control file backup or re-created control file was restored), indicate this in the dialog box or command used to start recovery. If a specified datafile is already online, Oracle ignores the statement.
To perform time-based recovery:

Issue the RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL TIME statement to begin time-based recovery. The time is always specified using the following format, delimited by single quotation marks: ‘YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS’. The following statement recovers the database up to a specified time using a control file backup:

RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL TIME ‘1992-12-31:12:47:30’ USINGBACKUP CONTROLFILE Apply the necessary redo log files to reconstruct the restored datafiles. Unless the application of files is automated, Oracle supplies the name it expects to find from LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 or LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST and requests you to stop or proceed with applying the log file. If the control file is a backup, you must supply names of online logs.

Apply redo log files until the last required redo log file has been applied to the restored datafiles. Oracle automatically terminates the recovery when it reaches the correct time, and returns a message indicating whether recovery is successful.

—–Original Message—–
From: Rocky Welch [SMTP:rockyw_99_at_yahoo com]
Sent: Wednesday, July 05, 2000 1:46 PM
To: Multiple recipients of list ORACLE-L
Subject: Recovery until point in time.

Hi Gang,
Is it possible to recover a database from cold backup using archived logs
that were generated after the cold backup? In other words, applying logs
that were generated on Friday to a cold backup that was taken on Thursday
by manually telling the database the name of the log to use to recover to
a time on Friday Whew, that hurt to type in! ?


Rocky Welch
Oracle DBA Consultant

rockyw_99_at_yahoo com

Do You Yahoo!?
Send instant messages get email alerts with Yahoo! Messenger.

Author: Rocky Welch
INET: rockyw_99_at_yahoo com

Fat City Network Services — (858) 538-5051 FAX: (858) 538-5051
San Diego, California — Public Internet access / Mailing Lists
To REMOVE yourself from this mailing list, send an E-Mail message
to: ListGuru_at_fatcity com (note EXACT spelling of ‘ListGuru’) and in
the message BODY, include a line containing: UNSUB ORACLE-L
(or the name of mailing list you want to be removed from). You may
Received on Wed Jul 05 2000 – 13:42:03 CDT


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How to Target International Media #international #media #database


Target International Media

How to Use the Three T’s

With the Three T’s of international distribution Targeting, Timing and Translations you’ll reach audiences around the world more efficiently.


Business Wire’s news wire circuits let you target news to select audiences based on industry and market needs. In fact, our network is composed of dozens of news agencies, financial information providers, and web-based news services worldwide. Please consult with your local account executive to find the distribution that suits your needs.

  • General Media circuits: Our regional circuits reach the broadest possible spectrum of media outlets in a given region. Major newspapers, radio/TV stations and networks, online outlets, magazines and news wires are all included.
  • Financial Media circuits: Similar to General Media, but with a financial emphasis. Analysts and the financial community are included in each region in addition to general media.
  • Trade Publications: For specialized news that needs to reach an industry audience, Business Wire offers a wide variety of trade media options in virtually every region of the world. And if we don’t currently offer what you need, our international media relations team will build it for you. Trade distribution in any region can be ordered free of charge (except Technology and, in Europe, Health) for relevant release content when ordering a corresponding regional media circuit.
  • Disclosure: Global companies often have global disclosure requirements. Business Wire currently offers disclosure networks in Canada and in many European markets, which include our Transparency Obligations Directive (TOD) network.


Knowing when to send your news is especially important when sending internationally. Holidays, time zones and the local work schedule of your destination should all be given attention to help optimize pickup of your news. Here are some tips and resources:

  • Most Visible Time: Just as in the US, the optimal time to distribute a news release overseas is in the morning, either at the opening of the local exchange or shortly afterwards (generally 8:00 – 10:00 AM local time). This is when the most people are viewing news, and keeps your news visible for the entire business day.
  • Avoid Weekend Distribution: Business virtually comes to a halt on weekends in many foreign markets. Pickup on your news is likely to be extremely low if released over the weekend.
  • Know Your Time Zones: Time differences play a big part in choosing when to release your news for distribution abroad. Consult time zone websites such as timeanddate.com or timezoneconverter.com for help.
  • Holidays: Be aware of holidays in your target markets. There is a holiday virtually every day somewhere in the world; know if the people you’re trying to reach are celebrating rather than working.


When you send news internationally, there’s a good chance translations will be involved. Media, for the most part, respond positively to news sent in their local languages. However, translations don’t happen instantly. It’s important to give our translators plenty of time the biggest factor when producing quality translations. Most translations can be returned in 24 to 48 hours or less, but many things can slow the process down:

  • Length of Release: A release with a large word count will take proportionally more time to translate.
  • Language Selection: A core group of languages (Spanish, French, German, Italian, etc.) that are used more frequently are generally returned more quickly than other, less frequently used languages. Please remember this if sending your news in less frequently used languages.
  • Language and Jargon: Many companies have unique products and services, and this can often be reflected in the language of their news. A company producing computer chips will use technical language and jargon unfamiliar to the layperson. While most translation companies will have translators who specialize in particular industries, it’s a good idea to provide a glossary of terms unique to your industry. Doing so can only streamline the process.
  • Rush Translations: Rushing a translation is rarely a good idea. Certain quality control steps are inevitably skipped to allow quicker turnaround, compromising the usefulness of the translation.
  • Reviewing: If your company has multilingual speakers on staff or in overseas offices, it’s helpful to have them review and approve translations prior to distribution. This adds a little time to the process, but is the best way to ensure the translated news release is conveying exactly the message you intend.

In general, the earlier you can submit your release prior to its intended distribution date, the better the process will go.


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The Academy of HVAC Engineering – Advanced Training #hvac #training #program,


New Course ‘Building Energy Retrofit Design’

Updated: Feb, 2017

The Academy’s team is pleased to offer a new training platform developed in response to the building industry’s demand in specialists skilled in developing investment-grade energy retrofit and renewal programs for commercial and institutional buildings. The platform was prepared based on the unique experience of the Academy’s leaders in designing energy retrofit programs in Canada.

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You will develop your own project for an industry size building. The resources will include:

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  • A set of professional mechanical drawings for buildings of different category.
  • An industry accepted software tool, ‘Hourly Analysis Program’ (HAP) developed by Carrier Inc.
  • A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet coded with various project-related calculations.

The course will be highly beneficial to engineers and graduates from university and college building science related programs as well as university and colleges seeking for an advanced course curriculum and training materials in energy management.

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Easily catalog your home library – create your personal book database

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    I use their apps for books and movies as well as their cloud platform. Keeps my books in order from my iphone, desktop and ipad. Especially like the quick scan feature – allows uploading books quickly with photos and written blurbs – then you can edit if you wish. Also like the ability to sort by genre or subject. Great product! Gardenhat on CLZ Books

    I just scan the book barcode and it’s in my list, in alphabetical order by title. It doesn’t have older versions of some books whose isbns have changed since the initial publishing but you can still find the book by author and title. Adia Grigsby on CLZ Books

    Very happy with it. Catherine Bell on CLZ Books


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  • TerraER – Entity-Relationship Modeling Tool #terraer, #er #model, #database, #database #model,


    TerraER – Entity-Relationship Modeling Tool

    Henrique Rocha, Ricardo Terra

    TerraER is a free open-source learning tool designed to aid students in the creation of entity-relationship models. Our main goal is to provide students with a tool that reflects exactly the data modeling concepts learned in the classroom.

    Web Site: http://www.terraer.com.br/index_en.html
    Version tested: TerraER 2.02
    System requirements: Java 1.5 or higher
    License Pricing: Open Source GNU Public License, Freeware.
    Support: Documentation available at our website and issue tracker system at https://github.com/rterrabh/TerraER

    Data modeling is one part of the database conceptual design process. The entity-relationship model (ER model) is a largely used conceptual model proposed by Chen [1]. It defines the entities and the relationships between these entities. The ER model is simple and easy to understand, making it intelligible to both database designers and end users [2, 3, 4].

    Academic database courses still adopt ER models to teach conceptual design. Nevertheless, we noticed a lack of modeling tools for this purpose. In practice, most modeling tools support logical design, which is a detailed model the designer proceeds after the conceptual model is complete. In view of such circumstances, academics (students and professors) are forced to use logical design tools instead, such as DBDesigner, ERWin, etc.

    The use of existing logical design tools – rather than conceptual design ones – has two major issues: (i) they may confuse students who are learning about conceptual modeling; and (ii) they were not developed for academic purposes. To address these shortcomings, we designed TerraER, a free open-source learning tool designed to aid students in the creation of ER models. Our main goal is to provide students with a tool that reflects exactly the data modeling concepts learned in the classroom.

    TerraER is distributed in a single JAR file publicly available for download at our web site www.terraer.com.br/download_en.html. The JAR file is auto-contained, i.e. it can be placed in any folder, does not require the installation of additional libraries, and does not change operating system files (e.g. windows registry). In a nutshell, TerraER requires only a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) previously installed on the target computer (www.java.com/en/download/index.jsp ).

    TerraER 2.02 has the following relevant features:

    • Free and open-source (GPL);
    • Simple and small but complete application (around 5 MB);
    • Cross-platform (only needs a JRE);
    • Internationalization (English and Portuguese);
    • Persist models to XML files (a cross-platform format);
    • Clipboard transfer;
    • Model printing; and
    • Easy to learn and intuitive interface.

    User Interface Feature description

    TerraER was initially designed for academic purposes, i.e. to help students and professors in the task of creating ER models. Therefore, we developed the graphical user interface to be practical, intelligible, and intuitive (i.e. easy to learn and use).

    The tool is a free, open-source application under the GNU Public License. Thereupon, we encourage users to directly contribute to the TerraER project (https://github.com/rterrabh/TerraER ). As an example, a B.Sc. student has contributed to the project by developing the internationalization for the English language.

    Figure 1 � Screenshot of TerraER 2.02 modeling a hypothetical Banking ER

    The tool is developed in Java language, which makes TerraER a cross-platform application. In addition, new releases are always verified on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.

    Figure 1 illustrates the TerraER interface, which is organized into five main parts:

    1. Menu bar. It provides the users with basic functionalities, such as saving, loading, and printing the models. More important, the models are saved in an XML-based format, which directly contributes to the cross-platform feature. In practice, models saved using an operating system can be loaded on a different one without any issue;
    2. Objects toolbar. It provides commands to create ER model elements – such as entities, relationships, attributes, etc. – on Chen �s notation, as adopted by Elmasri and Navathe [3];
    3. Position toolbar: It provides users with means to manipulate elements� position – such as alignment, overlapping, etc. – in order to support an elegant model design;
    4. Object inspector. It lists the elements of the current ER model and allows user to select, remove, or edit them. In practice, this feature provides a quick and precise way to handle model�s elements;
    5. Drawing area: It shows the graphical view of the ER model under creation. The user may add and remove elements to the model. There is a zoom feature, which can be very useful when dealing with large models. Also, there is a grid feature that displays a grid to help users to position elements.

    TerraER was initially designed as a teaching aid tool for academic database courses. In order to evaluate the applicability of our tool, we conducted a study in a Brazilian university to obtain the feedback from undergraduate students, which represent our target public.

    In the study, we defined three assignments and divided the database course class in 10 groups. In the first assignment, five groups were required to use DBDesigner (a popular database design system) and the other five groups to use TerraER. In the second assignment, we swapped the groups. In the third and last assignment, each group could opt for which tool they prefer. In the last day of the class, the students filled an evaluation form.

    The results clearly indicate a preference for TerraER as the model design tool. In fact, nine out of ten groups preferred TerraER to DBDesigner. According to the answers of the evaluation forms, the students argue that TerraER is easier to use and understand because it reflects the conceptual design learned inside the classroom.

    We welcome any help from the open-source community to support TerraER. For those not comfortable with their programming skills, it is possible to contribute with suggestions, donations, and even helping in the creation of a better documentation. TerraER source-code is available at https://github.com/rterrabh/TerraER , for those willing to play a more active roll.

    Academic courses still adopt ER model for database modeling. However, there is a severe lack of tools designed for this particularly purpose. In view of such circumstances, academics (professors and students) do not have other option than to rely on tools that do not follow the concepts learned inside the class. Even though these are usually popular tools, they do not draw conceptual models but logical models instead. In practice, it may negatively impact the learning curve of the students.

    To address this shortcoming, we developed TerraER with the specific purpose to be adopted in academic courses. Thereupon, we made the tool simple, easy to use, and complete w.r.t. ER modeling using Chen �s notation. More important, the study we conducted has shown students� preference for TerraER because it reflects the concepts learned in the classroom.

    Last but not least, TerraER is a small, multi-platform, free, and open-source software system, which make the tool the proper choice for conceptual data modeling. As far as we can guarantee, TerraER is currently (2013-year) employed in databases courses in ten Brazilian universities.

    [1] P. P. Chen. The entity-relationship model � towards a unified view of data. ACM Transactions on Database System, pages 9�36, 1976.

    [2] S. Bagui and R. Earp. Database Design Using Entity-Relationship Diagrams. CRC Press LLC, 1964.

    [3] R. Elmasri and S. B. Navathe. Fundamentals of Database Systems. Addison-Wesley, 6th edition, 2010.

    [4] A. Silberschatz, H. F. Korth, and S. Sudarshan. Database System Concepts. McGraw-Hill, 6th edition, 2010.

    More Database Modeling Knowledge


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    Broker Dealer Firms #broker #dealers, #list #of #broker #dealers, #broker #dealer


    What is a broker-dealer?
    A broker-dealer is a financial firm that trades securities either for its own account or on behalf of other firms. If a broker-dealer firm is trading securities on behalf of a customer account, it is acting as an agent or a broker whereas if the broker-deal firm is trading securities on behalf of its own account, it is acting as a principal or a dealer.

    Broker-Dealer Registration
    Most brokers and dealers must register with the SEC unless they transact all of their business within one state, in which case they are required to have a state registration. Those broker-dealers that advice or offer fee-based accounts generally must also register as an investment advisor. Investment advisors file Form ADV to register with the SEC or the states. Form ADV contains information about an investment advisor and its business operations. To view the latest filing for a particular registered investment advisor, please visit: www.adviserinfo.sec.gov

    Find a Registered Broker-Dealer
    Search the www.brokerdealerfirms.com directory using either:

    • Search broker-dealers alphabetically
    • Search broker-dealers by state
    • Search broker-dealers by assets under management

    Download Broker-Dealer Firms
    To order a download-to-Excel file of broker-dealer firms, visit http://www.brokerdealerfirms.com/download.php

    This website is for informational purposes only and is not to be construed as a solicitation or an offer to buy or sell any securities or related financial instruments nor an endorsement of any particular investment advisor firm or individual.

    No warranty or guarantee of any kind, expressed or implied, is given regarding the accuracy, reliability, veracity, or completeness of the information provided here or by following links from this or any other page within this site, and under no circumstances will the author or service provider be held responsible, or liable for errors, or omissions resulting in any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused by information contained in the material presented on the site, including but not limited to direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages caused by using the information.

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    Capacity Planning, IT Capacity Planning Reports, Infrastructure Capacity Planning and Trending


    Capacity Planning and Reporting

    With ManageEngine Applications Manager’s capacity planning and reporting ability you can monitor, measure and report your enterprise’s capacity, ensuring it s always efficiently allocated.

    ManageEngine Applications Manager supports over 100 performance metrics that can aide capacity planning for a heterogeneous set of applications and IT resources ranging from servers, databases, applications, web servers and web services.

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    ManageEngine Applications Manager provides the ability to monitor the performance of IBM Applications. We support for performance management and capacity planning for IBM WebSphere, WebSphere MQ, IBM DB2 and AS/400 or IBM iSeries.

    Infrastructure Capacity Planning


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    What is cloud database? Definition from #database #cloud #computing


    cloud database

    Download this free guide

    The Benefits of a DevOps Approach

    Bringing development and IT ops together can help you address many app deployment challenges. Our expert guide highlights the benefits of a DevOps approach. Explore how you can successfully integrate your teams to improve collaboration, streamline testing, and more.

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    Two cloud database environment models exist: traditional and database as a service (DBaaS).

    In a traditional cloud model, a database runs on an IT department’s infrastructure via a virtual machine. Tasks of database oversight and management fall upon IT staffers of the organization.

    What is Database as a Service?

    By comparison, the DBaaS model is a fee-based subscription service in which the database runs on the service provider’s physical infrastructure. Different service levels are usually available. In a classic DBaaS arrangement, the provider maintains the physical infrastructure and database, leaving the customer to manage the database’s contents and operation.

    Alternatively, a customer can set up a managed hosting arrangement, in which the provider handles database maintenance and management. This latter option may be especially attractive to small businesses that have database needs, but lack the adequate IT expertise.

    Cloud database benefits

    Compared with operating a traditional database on an on-site physical server and storage architecture, a cloud database offers the following distinct advantages:

    • Elimination of physical infrastructure. In a cloud database environment, the cloud computing provider of servers, storage and other infrastructure is responsible for maintenance and availability. The organization that owns and operates the database is only responsible for supporting and maintaining the database software and its contents. In a DBaaS environment, the service provider is responsible for maintaining and operating the database software, leaving the DBaaS users responsible only for their own data.
    • Cost savings. Through the elimination of a physical infrastructure owned and operated by an IT department, significant savings can be achieved from reduced capital expenditures, less staff, decreased electrical and HVAC operating costs, and a smaller amount of needed physical space.

    DBaaS benefits

    In addition to the benefits of employing a cloud database environment model, contracting with a DBaaS provider offers additional benefits:

    • Instantaneous scalability. Should added database capacity be necessitated by seasonal business peaks or unexpected spikes in demand, a DBaaS provider can quickly offer additional fee-based capacity, throughput and access bandwidth via its own infrastructure. A database operating in a traditional, on-site infrastructure would likely need to wait weeks or months for the procurement and installation of additional server, storage or communications resources.
    • Performance guarantees. Through a service level agreement (SLA). a DBaaS provider may be obligated to provide guarantees that typically quantify minimum uptime availability and transaction response times. An SLA specifies monetary and legal remedies if these performance thresholds are not met.
    • Specialized expertise. In a corporate IT environment, except for the largest multinational enterprises, finding world-class database experts may be difficult, and keeping them on staff may be cost prohibitive. In a DBaaS environment, the provider may serve thousands of customers; thus, finding, affording and keeping world-class talent is less of a challenge.
    • Latest technology. To remain competitive, DBaaS providers work hard to ensure that all database software, server operating systems and other aspects of the overall infrastructure are kept up to date with security and feature updates regularly issued by software vendors.
    • Failover support. For a provider of database services to meet performance and availability guarantees, it is incumbent on that provider to ensure uninterrupted operation should the primary data center fail for any reason. Failover support typically encompasses the operation of multiple mirror image server and data storage facilities. Handled properly, failover to a backup data center should be imperceptible to any customer of that service.
    • Declining pricing. With advances in technology and an intensely competitive marketplace among major service providers, pricing for a wide range of cloud-computing services undergoes continual recalibration. Declining prices are a major impetus for migrating on-site databases and other IT infrastructure to the cloud.

    Cloud database architecture

    Cloud databases, like their traditional ancestors, can be divided into two broad categories: relational and nonrelational.

    A relational database. typically written in structured query language (SQL). is composed of a set of interrelated tables that are organized into rows and columns. The relationship among tables and columns (fields) is specified in a schema. SQL databases, by design, rely on data that is highly consistent in its format, such as banking transactions or a telephone directory. Popular choices include MySQL. Oracle. IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server .

    Nonrelational databases, sometimes called NoSQL. do not employ a table model. Instead, they store content, regardless of its structure, as a single document. This technology is well-suited for unstructured data, such as social media content, photos and videos.

    Migrating legacy databases to the cloud

    An on-premises database can migrate to a cloud implementation. Numerous reasons exist for doing this, including the following:

    • Allows IT to retire on-premises physical server and storage infrastructure;
    • Fills the talent gap when IT lacks adequate in-house database expertise;
    • Improves processing efficiency, especially when applications and analytics that access the data also reside in the cloud; and
    • Achieves cost savings through several means, including:
      • Reduction of in-house IT staff;
      • Continually declining cloud service pricing; and
      • Paying for only the resources actually consumed, known as pay-as-you-go pricing.

    Relocating a database to the cloud can be an effective way to further enable business application performance as part of a wider software-as-a-service deployment. Doing so simplifies the processes required to make information available through internet-based connections. Storage consolidation can also be a benefit of moving a company’s databases to the cloud. Databases in multiple departments of a large company, for example, can be combined in the cloud into a single hosted database management system .

    How does a cloud database work?

    From a structural and design perspective, a cloud database is no different than one that operates on a business’s own on-premises servers. The key difference lies in where it resides.

    Where an on-premises database is connected to local users through a corporation’s internal local area network (LAN). a cloud database resides on servers and storage furnished by a cloud or DBaaS provider, and it is accessed solely via the internet. To a software application, for example, a SQL database residing on-premises or in the cloud should appear identical.

    Accessed either through direct queries (such as SQL statements) or via API calls, the database’s behavior should be the same. However, it may be possible to discern small differences in response time. An on-premises database, accessed via a LAN. is likely to provide slightly faster response than a cloud-based database, which requires a round trip on the internet for each interaction with the database. In practice, however, the differences are likely to be small.

    This was last updated in February 2017

    Continue Reading About cloud database

    Related Terms

    iPaaS (integration platform as a service) Integration platform as a service (iPaaS) is a set of cloud-based tools that enables software engineers to deploy, manage, govern. See complete definition native cloud application (NCA) A native cloud application (NCA) is a program that is specifically designed for a cloud computing environment as opposed to. See complete definition Workday Workday is a web-based ERP software vendor that specializes in human capital management and financial management applications. See complete definition

    Dig Deeper on Cloud integration platform


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    T-SQL String Manipulation Tips and Techniques, Part 1 #t-sql, #database #development,


    T-SQL String Manipulation Tips and Techniques, Part 1

    T-SQL is a language that was mainly designed to handle data manipulation tasks. Not much effort and attention were given to other kinds of tasks, such as string manipulation. Therefore, when you do need to manipulate strings in T-SQL, it can sometimes be quite challenging even for seemingly simple tasks. This article is the first of a two-part series in which I cover several common string manipulation needs. I d like to thank the following people who provided input regarding this topic: Ruben Garrigos, Kevin Boles, Fabiano Amorim, Milos Radivojevic, Peter Larsson, and Davide Mauri.

    Counting Occurrences of a Substring Within a String

    This code returns the value 3, indicating that the substring hello appears three times in the string abchellodehellofhello .

    The steps in this technique are:

    Because the solution is in the form of a single expression, it can be applied as part of a query using the underlying table s or view s attributes as inputs.

    Exactly N Occurrences of a Substring Within a String

    One obvious way to achieve this is to use the previous technique to count occurrences of a substring in a string, like so:

    Another way to handle the task is to use the LIKE predicate, like so:

    With both techniques, the validation is handled by a single expression. Therefore, you can easily embed the expression in a query filter or a CHECK constraint in a table definition.

    Replacing Multiple Contiguous Spaces With a Single Space

    ) or even multiple characters (e.g.

    (token plus space).

  • Replace in the result of the previous step each occurrence of
    (space plus token) with (an empty string).
  • Replace in the result of the previous step each occurrence of

    (token plus space) with (space).

  • All this translates to the following T-SQL expression:

    The output of this code is: this is a string with lots of spaces.

    Replacing Overlapping Occurrences

    The next challenge was brought up by Davide Mauri; he initially found it in the Italian SQL Server forums. It involves a certain misconception that some people have regarding the way the REPLACE function works. Consider the following code. Before executing it, see if you can guess what the output will be:

    Some people intuitively think that the output should be .y.y.y.y. however, it s actually .y.x.y.x. The reasoning behind the actual result is that REPLACE considers nonoverlapping occurrences from left to right. If we represent the string .x. with the symbol A, you can express the source string as AxAx.; then, replacing each occurrence of A with .y. gives you .y.x.y.x..

    Suppose you want to handle the replacement task while considering overlapping occurrences. One way to achieve this is to nest two calls to the REPLACE function, like so:

    Another option is replacing each occurrence of the separator with two, then applying the originally intended replacement, then replacing each two occurrences of the separator with one. Here s the expression in T-SQL:

    String Formatting Numbers With Leading Zeros

    There are several tasks related to formatting numbers as strings that people often inquire about. T-SQL perhaps isn t the best place to handle those, but I ll still present solutions mainly for their technical value.

    The output of this code is -0000001759.

    Another solution involves converting the absolute input value to a character string, concatenating a string with nine zeros (000000000) with the result of the previous step, extracting the 10 rightmost characters from the result, and finally adding the minus sign in front if the input is negative. Here s the expression that implements this logic:

    SQL Server 2012 (formerly code-named Denali ), is planned to support a function called FORMAT that will make your life really easy when it comes to formatting strings representing numbers and other types of values. The FORMAT function accepts a format string compatible with .NET format strings for similar purposes, indicating how you want to format the value. For our specific task, the expression is very simple:

    Left Trimming Leading Occurrences of a Character

    The technique to achieve this is quite straightforward when the source string doesn t contain spaces to begin with. You first replace each occurrence of a zero with a space, then apply LTRIM to remove leading spaces, then replace each occurrence of a space with a zero, like so:

    This code returns 1709.

    If spaces are allowed in the input, you want to first replace each existing space with a token that you know can t appear in the source data (e.g.

    ), then apply the previous technique, then replace each occurrence of the token with a space, like so:

    This code returns 1709 ABC.

    This just gives you an idea of dealing with one complication. Of course there can be several additional complications, such as support for negative values, spaces at the beginning, and so on.

    Checking That a String Is Made of Only Digits

    One solution in which you don t need to worry about special cases is to generate a string pattern in which you replicate the character pattern [0-9] (basically, a digit) as many times as the number of characters in the input string, like so:

    The problem with this approach is that if the input strings are very long, the pattern generated will be five times as long as the input.

    There s another solution that also doesn t require you to deal with special cases, and it uses a very short pattern. You use two levels of negation, verifying that the string doesn t contain any character that s not a digit, like so:

    Just like with the previous techniques I described, the last two validation techniques implement the logic using a single expression. This means that you can embed the predicate wherever predicates are supported in T-SQL, operating on a table or view attribute. For example, if you need to enforce this rule in a CHECK constraint as part of a table definition, you can, like so:

    Make the Most of T-SQL s Tools

    I covered several common string manipulation tasks: counting occurrences of a substring within a string, verifying that there are an exact number of occurrences of a substring within a string, replacing multiple contiguous spaces with a single space, replacing overlapping occurrences, formatting strings representing numbers with leading zeros, left trimming leading character occurrences, and verifying that a string is made of only digits. As you saw, T-SQL doesn t provide very rich capabilities in this area. You therefore need to be a bit creative with the limited set of tools that you do get. Fortunately, SQL Server Denali improves support for string manipulation by adding new functions, among them the FORMAT function that lets you format an input based on a format string.

    Next month, I ll continue the discussion about string manipulation, and I ll cover additional challenges related to string manipulation involving tricky type conversions. If you have your own cool and creative techniques to handle common string manipulation needs, I d love to hear about them.


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    Free Office software #free #office #software, #business #program, #office #suite, #office


    Personal Information Manager, Database and Word Processor. Download TreePad and enjoy better access, organization and control over all your data, notes, bills, projects, clients, addresses, letters, speeches, research, collections, classroom notes, Web pages, links, bibliographic listings, and whatever else your creativity enables you to entrust TreePad with, for good organization, easy access, and safe storage.
    Despite all its features and power, TreePad is as easy to use as the Windows explorer and will fit (including data) on one floppy!
    Freeware, Shareware, Linux and Windows versions are available on www.treepad.com .
    Created by Freebyte.

    Fully customizable addressbook program for Windows XP, Vista, 2000, NT, 95, 98, ME. Freeware and shareware versions are available. Custom Addressbook is an easy to use, small, and extremely flexible Address Management program. Another advantage of its small size, is that the program and its database file can run directly from an external disk, such as a USB stick, floppy, etc. Some of the additional features: password protection, minimize to tray, data encryption, data compression, import, search, backup, non-western fonts, etc.
    For more information, please see here. Created by Freebyte.

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    Viewing the Host Database #host #database


    Viewing The Host Database

    Use this form to search for and view entries in the Princeton University Host Database.

    Entries may be located by searching on one of several fields listed below. Locate a field you believe you know, enter a value in that field, then click the “Lookup” button to that right of that field. Examples of typical values for each field appear to right of each field. Additional general information appears below.

    (shazam, xyzzy.cs)
    (Note: searches entry names, aliases, and interface aliases)

    (8:0:7:a:bb:c1, 08:00:7:a:BB:c1)
    (Note: includes Ethernet and Wireless hardware addresses)

    Dormnet Subscriber Netid:

    General Information

    Detailed descriptions of most fields which may appear in a Host Database entry are available.

    Use of this form to view Host Database entries is restricted to hosts that are in the Princeton.EDU DNS domain. (You cannot use this form to view entries in the Host Database if your Web browser is running on a computer outside the Princeton.EDU domain.)

    The information displayed by this form comes from the “external-format Host Database”. That’s a snapshot of the Host Database produced every time the database is rebuilt. The database is normally rebuilt at least once per day, and is usually rebuilt far more often. Changes to the database that are currently being processed may not appear here until the database has been rebuilt.

    If you need to change an entry in the Host Database, go to the Host Database Home Page.

    A programmatic interface to reading the information in the database is available; for details see the hostExtDB manual page.

    Legal Notice

    It is the intent of the Princeton University Office of Information Technology that the information in the Host Database (whether obtained from this online service or via other means) not be made available to the public, but instead be limited to persons using devices attached to the Princeton University data network, or persons or organizations that demonstrate a current affiliation with Princeton University by authenticating with a current and valid OIT netid and password.

    Copyright 2017 by the Trustees of Princeton University. All rights reserved.

    Permission is hereby granted by the Princeton University Office of Information Technology for faculty, staff, and students of Princeton University to reproduce, copy, store in a retrieval system, or transmit information obtain from this online service, provided that access to the information is limited to devices directly attached to the Princeton University data network, or to persons or organizations that demonstrate a current affiliation with Princeton University by authenticating with a current and valid OIT netid and password.

    Except as described above, no part of the information provided by this online service may be reproduced, copied, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the Princeton University Office of Information Technology.


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    Registering a Domain Name #domian #name, #register #domain, #icann, #internic, #domain


    Registering a Domain Name

    Related Terms

    The only way to register and start using a domain name is to use the services of a domain name registrar.

    The only way to register and start using a domain name is to use the services of a domain name registrar. The domain name industry is regulated and overseen by ICANN. the organization that is responsible for certifying companies as domain name registrars. At one time there was only one domain name registrar – Network Solutions, Inc. – but today there are dozens of accredited registrars. Only a domain name registrar is permitted to access and modify the master database of domain names maintained by InterNIC. The master database contains the documentation on all of the domain names registered to date. InterNIC provides a list of accredited domain name registrars.

    If you come across a registrar that is not on the list it is most likely that the organization is acting as a reseller for one of the accredited registrars as only an accredited registrar has the ability to modify the database of domain names.

    ICANN-accredited registrars have the authority to assign domain names for the TLDs of .com. biz. info. name. net, and .org. ICANN does not, however, specifically accredit registrars to provide registration services for country code TLDs .

    The registrar you choose will determine the cost for registering a domain name, but in general expect to pay a yearly fee. Some registrars will offer discounts if you register for more than one year, but no registrar has the authority to sell more than a 10-year registration contract for any domain name. The registrar will ask you to provide some contact and technical information to have on record. This information is stored in a registry, which other computers can access to find information on your site. While it may seem like a privacy issue, it is best to be honest when supplying the contact information to a registrar. The registrar can cancel a contract and resell the domain name if it cannot contact an actual person to settle legal issues that may arise.

    There are many laws that regulate the registration of domain names, such as registering a copyrighted name or registering a domain name for the sole purpose of blocking someone else from using it. Check with your domain name registrar for the laws that affect how you register your domain name.

    If you want to create a domain name and are not sure if it has already been taken, you can check a whois server that keeps track of all the registered domain names.

    Private Cloud Project: Top Considerations You Need to Know

    Retweet Tips for Maximum Twitter Exposure

    From keyword analysis to backlinks and Google search engine algorithm updates, our search engine optimization glossary lists 85 SEO terms you need. Read More

    Microsoft Windows is a family of operating systems for personal computers. In this article we look at the history of Microsoft operating. Read More

    From Goats to Penguins, a server outage and trillions of searches, our slideshow presents interesting facts about Google and the Google.com. Read More

    Java is a high-level programming language. This guide describes the basics of Java, providing an overview of syntax, variables, data types and. Read More

    This second Study Guide describes the basics of Java, providing an overview of operators, modifiers and control Structures. Read More

    The Open System Interconnection (OSI) model defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers. Use this handy guide to compare. Read More


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    Novosoft Office Backup – Data Backup and Disaster Recovery Software for


    Novosoft Office Backup – Data Backup Software

    Office Backup is a backup software designed for automatic backing up data of PCs running Windows operating systems. It allows you to protect important data from loss or damage by regularly creating backups and storing them to secured storage media or servers. And then, if something happens to your PC, you will be able to restore all information in a matter of minutes.

    With Office Backup you can perform both files-based and image-based backup of your HDD. The program has a simple Wizard-driven interface and can be easily utilized by users of all levels of computer expertise. It provides an easy way to enable backup compression, encryption, and to schedule tasks to take place automatically. Supported OS include Windows 7/Vista/XP/2000 and Windows Server 2008/2003/2000 .

    NEW! Grand premiere! Novosoft Office Backup 4 is officially released! The latest version of the popular office backup utility features the handy expansion of cloud backup features (explore backup to Amazon S3 and manual-registration-free Cloud Storage by Novosoft) and the hottest advanced backup options (MSSQL backup, Outlook hot backup, support of Volume Shadow Copy for MS Exchange backup, and more).

    For details, feel warmly welcome to check the News .

    In addition to FTPS and DiscHub, Office Backup supports backing up to the following media and servers:

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    Membership database online #membership #database #online



    Whether you’re a plastics scientist or engineer, a business owner, marketing/sales expert, or any other professional in plastics, SPE membership can help you advance your knowledge and your career. The information you need to increase efficiency and productivity, develop your career, and add to your company’s bottom line is literally right at your fingertips.

    SPE s support of the development of plastics professionals begins at the moment they enter the industry as a student. Undergraduate and graduate students in plastics related fields of study can learn, study and build their professional networks.

    Join Online
    To Join SPE online, you will need to log in to the SPE website using your SPE User ID and Password. If you have not yet created an online account with SPE, you will need to click on the New Visitor Registration before you can proceed with your membership application.

    Join by Telephone
    Call +1 203.775.0471 to join by phone with a credit card. You can reach a representative Monday Friday between the hours of 8:00 am 5:00 pm eastern time.


    SPE is the perfect place to build your foundation in the plastics industry!

    Undergraduate and graduate students in plastics related fields of study can learn, study and build their professional networks.

    Members should be regularly enrolled, full-time students in a course of study for a future in the industry.

    Plastics Industry Association (PLASTICS) covers the membership dues for students who are US Citizens, and their primary residence is in the US. Additional regional models to follow soon. Read More

    $31 per year

    Young Professional

    Launch your career with SPE learning, networking, and career-building resources!

    Members should be under 35 years of age, but not a Student Member.

    In order to qualify for this rate, member s birth date must be furnished.

    $99 per year


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    Members should have a professional or academic interest in plastics engineering, technology, science, or in the management of such activities.

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    That was a spectacular celebration. Everything went so smoothly thanks to you and Russ and the SPE staff.

    You bring a sense of class and character to the party that shall be missed.

    Sherry and I had a great time and we are looking forward to Ghent in October.

    Thank you very much for sharing my movie with such a distinguished audience.

    I felt like I was showing a family video to my family.
    The SPE membership, from Prof. Haas to the loveliest student are truly wonderful.

    I hope you have a wonderful hiatus before you plunge back into the technical world

    All my best,

    Learn more about Leo Hendrik Baekeland and Bakelite at allthingsbakelite.com

    One of the biggest challenges recent college graduates face is developing the connections in their field of industry. Let s face it the moment we graduate college, we no longer have professors, classmates, or clubs encouraging us to remain involved in activities that develop us professionally.

    The SPE offers recent graduates a way to develop and foster academic and professional connections after college. Currently in my 6th year with SPE, the biggest benefit for me has been developing a network of colleagues that share a passion for the plastics and polymers field. With annual conferences and access to a network of professionals, the SPE creates pathways for those new to the industry to flourish. Today s industry is no longer based solely on what you know. It also is heavily rooted in who you know, how involved you are, and what impact you want to make.

    My own personal experiences with SPE have enabled me to leverage the resources available, thus helping me to not only advance my own career, but cater my own career to what I want. You choose your professional growth, but organizations like the SPE help you identify and utilize the tools necessary to make this happen.

    Matthew Kyle Petterman
    Member since 2012

    I was active in SPE as a student, and have continued to be as I begin into my professional career. I found the society to be an ever expanding channel were I could build my professional network as a student. As a student member SPE introduced me to many opportunities that I would not have had if I were not a member. As a young professional in the plastics industry I continue to find my member benefits useful. I feel that SPE is a must for all involved in the plastics industry. I believe being an active member of the Society of Plastics Engineers enhances my credibility as a young professional working in the Automotive Electrical Connectors industry.

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    Data Firm Says ‘Secret Sauce’ Aided Trump; Many Scoff – The


    Data Firm Says ‘Secret Sauce’ Aided Trump; Many Scoff

    Alexander Nix, chief executive of Cambridge Analytica, at the Concordia Summit for public-private business partnerships in New York in September. The firm claimed to have developed psychographic profiles that could predict the political leanings of every American adult. Credit Bryan Bedder/Getty Images

    Standing before political and business leaders in New York last fall, Alexander Nix promised a revolution.

    Many companies compete in the market for political microtargeting, using huge data sets and sophisticated software to identify and persuade voters. But Mr. Nix’s little-known firm, Cambridge Analytica, claimed to have developed something unique: “psychographic” profiles that could predict the personality and hidden political leanings of every American adult.

    “Of the two candidates left in the election, one of them is using these technologies,” Mr. Nix said, referring to Donald J. Trump .

    Capitalizing on its work for the man who is now president, Cambridge has pitched potential clients in the United States ranging from MasterCard and the New York Yankees to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Ahead of this year’s elections in Europe, Mr. Nix is promoting the four-year-old United States-based company abroad, too.

    Cambridge Analytica’s rise has rattled some of President Trump’s critics and privacy advocates, who warn of a blizzard of high-tech, Facebook-optimized propaganda aimed at the American public, controlled by the people behind the alt-right hub Breitbart News. Cambridge is principally owned by the billionaire Robert Mercer, a Trump backer and investor in Breitbart. Stephen K. Bannon, the former Breitbart chairman who is Mr. Trump’s senior White House counselor, served until last summer as vice president of Cambridge’s board.

    But a dozen Republican consultants and former Trump campaign aides, along with current and former Cambridge employees, say the company’s ability to exploit personality profiles — “our secret sauce,” Mr. Nix once called it — is exaggerated.

    Cambridge executives now concede that the company never used psychographics in the Trump campaign. The technology — prominently featured in the firm’s sales materials and in media reports that cast Cambridge as a master of the dark campaign arts — remains unproved, according to former employees and Republicans familiar with the firm’s work.

    “They’ve got a lot of really smart people,” said Brent Seaborn, managing partner of TargetPoint, a rival business that also provided voter data to the Trump campaign. “But it’s not as easy as it looks to transition from being excellent at one thing and bringing it into politics. I think there’s a big question about whether we think psychographic profiling even works.”

    At stake are not merely bragging rights, but also an emerging science that many believe could reshape American politics and commerce. Big data companies already know your age, income, favorite cereal and when you last voted. But the company that can perfect psychological targeting could offer far more potent tools: the ability to manipulate behavior by understanding how someone thinks and what he or she fears.

    A voter deemed neurotic might be shown a gun-rights commercial featuring burglars breaking into a home, rather than a defense of the Second Amendment; political ads warning of the dangers posed by the Islamic State could be targeted directly at voters prone to anxiety, rather than wasted on those identified as optimistic.

    “You can do things that you would not have dreamt of before,” said Alexander Polonsky, chief data scientist at Bloom, a consulting firm that offers “emotion analysis” of social networks and has worked with the center-right Republican Party in France.

    “It goes beyond sharing information,” he added. “It’s sharing the thinking and the feeling behind this information, and that’s extremely powerful.”

    Both conservatives and liberals are eager to harness that power. In Washington, some Democratic operatives are scrambling to develop personality-profiling capabilities of their own. But even as Cambridge seeks to expand its business among conservative groups, questions about its performance have soured many Republicans in Mr. Trump’s orbit.

    Cambridge is no longer in contention to work for Mr. Trump at the Republican National Committee. a company spokesman confirmed, nor is it working for America First Policies, a new nonprofit formed to help advance the president’s agenda.

    In recent months, the value of Cambridge’s technology has been debated by technology experts and in some media accounts. But Cambridge officials, in recent interviews, defended the company’s record during the 2016 election, saying its data analysis helped Mr. Trump energize critical support in the Rust Belt. Mr. Nix said the firm had conducted tens of thousands of polls for Mr. Trump, helping guide his message and identify issues that mattered to voters.

    But when asked to name a single race where the firm’s flagship product had been critical to victory, Mr. Nix declined.

    “We bake a cake, it’s got 10 ingredients in it. Psychographics is one of them,” he said. “It’s very difficult to isolate exactly what the impact of that ingredient is.”

    Stephen K. Bannon, President Trump’s senior White House counselor, has served as a Cambridge corporate officer. Credit Damon Winter/The New York Times

    Drawn to America

    Cambridge’s parent company, the London-based Strategic Communication Laboratories Group, has a long record of trying to understand and influence behavior. Founded in 1993 by a former British adman, the firm has worked for companies and candidates around the world, as well as for government and military clients. SCL has studied Pakistani jihadists for the British government and provided intelligence assessments for American defense contractors in Iran, Libya and Syria, according to company documents obtained by The New York Times.

    “Their approach was seen as serious and focused,” said Mark Laity, chief of strategic communications at NATO’s military headquarters in Europe, who has taken part in NATO-affiliated conferences where SCL has made presentations.

    In recent years, the company has moved to exploit the revolution in big data to predict human behavior more precisely, working with scientists from the Cambridge University Psychometrics Center. The United States represented a critical new market. Europe has strict privacy protections that limit the use of personal information, but America is more lightly regulated, allowing the sale of huge troves of consumer data to any company or candidate who can afford them.

    In 2013, Cambridge Analytica was created as SCL’s American operation, and the two companies today share many of their roughly 200 employees, several top executives, and offices in New York and Washington.

    To develop its profiling system, Cambridge conducts detailed psychological surveys — by phone and online — of tens of thousands of people, differentiating them by five traits, a model widely used by behavioral researchers.

    Uniquely, the company claims to be able to extrapolate those findings to millions of other people it has not surveyed, assigning them one of 32 distinct personality types. Cambridge then blends those profiles with commercial data and voting histories, revealing “hidden voter trends and behavioral triggers,” according to a 2016 company brochure.

    Those profiles, in turn, would allow campaigns to customize advertising, direct-mail slogans and door-knocking scripts, each calibrated to prod the targeted voter toward — or away from — a candidate.

    The promise of psychometrics appealed to Mr. Mercer, a computer scientist who made a fortune helping to lead Renaissance Technologies, a Long Island-based hedge fund. Mr. Mercer and his daughter Rebekah presided over a growing political empire that included millions of dollars in contributions to conservative groups and a stake in Breitbart, whose nationalist and racially antagonistic content prefigured Mr. Trump’s presidential campaign.

    The billionaire Robert Mercer, a Trump supporter, is the principal owner of Cambridge Analytica. Credit Andrew Toth/Getty Images

    Mr. Mercer became Cambridge’s principal investor, according to two former employees. (Like several others interviewed for this article, they spoke on the condition of anonymity, citing nondisclosure agreements and the threat of lawsuits.) Mr. Bannon, the family’s political guru, also advised the company and served as vice president of its board, according to Delaware public records.

    Mr. Mercer has never spoken publicly about his policy views in depth, but his giving is eclectic: He has financed anti-Clinton documentaries, right-wing media watchdogs, libertarian think tanks and both Senator Ted Cruz, a religious conservative, and Mr. Trump, a thrice-married nationalist.

    “The genius here is Bob, and the billionaire in this is Bob, and the person with the extreme views of how the world should be is Bob,” said David Magerman, a Renaissance research scientist who was recently suspended after criticizing his boss’s support for Mr. Trump.

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    Indexing the Data Warehouse #sql #server #analysis #services, #storage, #sql #server,


    Indexing the Data Warehouse

    Indexing the data warehouse can reduce the amount of time it takes to see query results. When indexing dimensions, you ll want to index on the dimension key. When indexing the fact table, you ll want to index on the date key or the combined data plus time.

    Indexing a data warehouse is tricky. If you have too few indexes, the data loads quickly but the query response is slow. If you have too many indexes, the data loads slowly and your storage requirements go through the roof but the query response is good. Indexing in any database, transactional or warehouse, most often reduces the length of time it takes to see query results. This is especially true with large tables and complex queries that involve table joins. (See also, Design your Data Warehouse for Performance and Data Warehouse Workloads and Use Cases ).

    Some of the variables that you ll want to take into account when indexing the data warehouse are the type of data warehouse you have (i.e. primarily archive or primarily near real-time), how large the dimensions and fact tables are (and if the fact tables are partitioned), who will be accessing the data and how they ll do so, and whether access will be ad hoc or via structured application interfaces. These variables will determine how your indexing scheme should be structured. Here s a simple plan for indexing the relational tables that comprise a portion of your data warehouse. (Although I only explain how to index dimensions and fact tables in this article, I explain how to index the staging database in the Web-exclusive sidebar Indexing the Staging Database . ) Note that the relational tables are those that are managed by SQL Server s relational data engine, not those managed by the SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) engine.

    Indexing Dimensions

    You ll want to index the dimension key (primary key), which is a surrogate key, not a natural or transactional key such as customer name or customer ID. Note that you shouldn t cluster on the dimension key.

    The dimension will contain a natural or transactional key (e.g. a transaction number or identifier), which we ll call a business key, from the source system. Although the business key might not be unique as in the case of a type 2 response to slowly changing dimensions create a clustered index on the identity column, which you can see in Figure 1. The Customer and the Product dimensions have a clustered index built on the business key. By clustering on this key, you can enhance the query response when the business key is used in the WHERE clause. The expression in the WHERE clause is often used to search the dimensional data, and having the dimension records pre-sorted makes the query response faster.

    Clustering by the business key might also help you avoid lock escalation (i.e. row to table, intent-exclusive to exclusive) during the extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL) process, which could happen if the surrogate key was the cluster key and all the rows were being added at the end of the file. If the exclusive locks escalated from row to table, that would block read, other ETL load, or utility operations on the table and cause diminished query response and even application timeouts. If your users and applications can live with some latency, you can get around this problem by having them query database snapshots and reserving the original database exclusively for data loads.

    In Figure 1. the Date dimension and the Time dimension have no external datasource or business key. Instead of creating an identity-style primary key for these two tables, consider using a smart key, with a YYYYMMDD format for Date and an HHMMSSSSS format for Time (you can use fewer second positions, depending on how fine a time granularity you need to measure), and clustering on it. The values will maintain index order, range queries will be simplified in the fact table, and you ll need one less join when querying because the primary key will contain the date (or time).

    For large type 2 slowly changing dimensions (i.e. where you add a new row to record the change), you might want to create a four-part non-clustered index that includes the business key, the record begin date, the record end date, and the surrogate key. For efficiency and to prevent escalating storage requirements, INCLUDE the record end date and the surrogate key when creating the index instead of making them part of the index key, as shown in the following command:

    This command creates a covering index that can be useful during the ETL process and load operations and for historical queries. When you make RecordEnd- Date and SurrogateKEY INCLUDEs instead of part of the index key, the SQL Server engine stores these two values at only the leaf level of the index tree, thus reducing the storage requirements. By having these two columns in the index (i.e. creating a covering index), the SQL Server relational engine can get the data that it needs solely from the index during load and some query operations, without having to access data from the underlying dimension.

    If there are other columns in the dimension that will be used continuously for searching, sorting, or grouping, create non-clustered indexes on those columns as you would in a transactional database. If there s an embedded hierarchy in a dimension, such as the Category- SubCategory-ProductID hierarchy in the Product dimension, then consider indexing the components of the hierarchy if it will enhance query performance and won t inhibit data loading.

    Indexing the Fact Table

    Indexing the fact table is similar to indexing a dimension, although you must account for partitioning. You ll want to index and cluster on the date key or a combined date plus time. Because business intelligence (BI) analysis always seems to involve a date/time component, the fact table will have a date (or datetime) key, and clustering on this key will help with cube-building. Also, if the data records are already stored in date or datetime order, historical queries will have an execution advantage. If the fact table has more than one date or datetime column, cluster on the column that s used most often for querying or cube-building.

    If the fact table is partitioned on the date column, use that column as the clustering key. When you see the same column to create the clustered index that you used to create the partitions and creating the index in the same file group that holds the partitioned fact table, SQL Server will automatically partition the index the same way that the fact table is partitioned (i.e. the index will have the same partitioning function and column as the fact table). When the index is partitioned the same way the fact table is partitioned, the table and its index are said to be aligned, which makes for an optimal operational situation, especially if you anticipate creating additional partitions or making frequent partition switches.

    Next, create a non-clustered index on each of the foreign keys in the fact table, and consider combining the foreign key and the date key, in that order, similar to CustomerKEY + DateKEY in Figure 1. Creating a non-clustered key on the foreign keys works especially well if one or more of the associated dimensions is a type 2 slowly changing dimension. Rows with the same foreign key value will be searched in ascending date order, which will enhance the historical query response. Note that you ll want to retain relational integrity when dealing with the foreign keys. For more information about how to do so, see the Web-exclusive sidebar Retaining Relational Integrity in the Data Warehouse .

    Modifying Your Indexing Scheme

    Over time, your data warehouse will change to accommodate what s happening in your organization, and you ll have to modify your indexing scheme. Most data warehouse/BI systems will access these relational tables directly, so you can use tried-and-true transactional methods for tuning indexes, such as evaluating the query and data mix and adjusting it accordingly. If your relational data warehouse is used only to stage SSAS structures, then you might not need any more indexes than those we ve talked about. SSAS tends to use the same queries over and over again, so you can run the Index Tuning Wizard and tune exactly for that set of queries. Start simple, evaluate thoroughly, and build conservatively when indexing your data warehouse.


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    Database backup #database #backup


    Chapter 7 Backup and Recovery

    It is important to back up your databases so that you can recover your data and be up and running again in case problems occur, such as system crashes, hardware failures, or users deleting data by mistake. Backups are also essential as a safeguard before upgrading a MySQL installation, and they can be used to transfer a MySQL installation to another system or to set up replication slave servers.

    MySQL offers a variety of backup strategies from which you can choose the methods that best suit the requirements for your installation. This chapter discusses several backup and recovery topics with which you should be familiar:

    Types of backups: Logical versus physical, full versus incremental, and so forth.

    Methods for creating backups.

    Recovery methods, including point-in-time recovery.

    Backup scheduling, compression, and encryption.

    Table maintenance, to enable recovery of corrupt tables.

    Additional Resources

    Resources related to backup or to maintaining data availability include the following:

    Customers of MySQL Enterprise Edition can use the MySQL Enterprise Backup product for backups. For an overview of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, see Section 29.2, “MySQL Enterprise Backup Overview”.

    A forum dedicated to backup issues is available at http://forums.mysql.com/list.php?28.

    Details for mysqldump can be found in Chapter 4, MySQL Programs .

    The syntax of the SQL statements described here is given in Chapter 13, SQL Statement Syntax .

    For additional information about InnoDB backup procedures, see Section 14.18.1, “InnoDB Backup”.

    Replication enables you to maintain identical data on multiple servers. This has several benefits, such as enabling client query load to be distributed over servers, availability of data even if a given server is taken offline or fails, and the ability to make backups with no impact on the master by using a slave server. See Chapter 16, Replication .

    MySQL InnoDB cluster is a collection of products that work together to provide a high availability solution. A group of MySQL servers can be configured to create a cluster using MySQL Shell. The cluster of servers has a single master, called the primary, which acts as the read-write master. Multiple secondary servers are replicas of the master. A minimum of three servers are required to create a high availability cluster. A client application is connected to the primary via MySQL Router. If the primary fails, a secondary is automatically promoted to the role of primary, and MySQL Router routes requests to the new primary.

    NDB Cluster provides a high-availability, high-redundancy version of MySQL adapted for the distributed computing environment. See Chapter 21, MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6 . which provides information about MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 (based on MySQL 5.7 but containing the latest improvements and fixes for the NDB storage engine).


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