Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Other Motor Neuron Diseases (MNDs) –


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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Other Motor Neuron Diseases (MNDs)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Most patients with ALS present with random, asymmetric symptoms, consisting of cramps, weakness, and muscle atrophy of the hands (most commonly) or feet. Weakness progresses to the forearms, shoulders, and lower limbs. Fasciculations, spasticity, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, extensor plantar reflexes, clumsiness, stiffness of movement, weight loss, fatigue, and difficulty controlling facial expression and tongue movements soon follow.

Other symptoms include hoarseness, dysphagia, and slurred speech; because swallowing is difficult, salivation appears to increase, and patients tend to choke on liquids.

Late in the disorder, a pseudobulbar affect occurs, with inappropriate, involuntary, and uncontrollable excesses of laughter or crying. Sensory systems, consciousness, cognition, voluntary eye movements, sexual function, and urinary and anal sphincters are usually spared.

Death is usually caused by failure of the respiratory muscles; 50% of patients die within 3 yr of onset, 20% live 5 yr, and 10% live 10 yr. Survival for > 30 yr is rare. In progressive bulbar palsy with ALS (bulbar-variant ALS), deterioration and death occur more rapidly.

Progressive bulbar palsy

The muscles innervated by cranial nerves and corticobulbar tracts are predominantly affected, causing progressive difficulty with chewing, swallowing, and talking; nasal voice; reduced gag reflex; fasciculations and weak movement of the facial muscles and tongue; and weak palatal movement. Aspiration is a risk. A pseudobulbar affect with emotional lability may occur if the corticobulbar tract is affected.

Commonly, the disorder spreads, affecting extrabulbar segments; then it is called bulbar-variant ALS.

Patients with dysphagia have a very poor prognosis; respiratory complications due to aspiration frequently result in death within 1 to 3 yr.

Progressive muscular atrophy

In many cases, especially those with childhood onset, inheritance is autosomal recessive. Other cases are sporadic. The disorder can develop at any age.

Anterior horn cell involvement occurs alone or is more prominent than corticospinal involvement, and progression tends to be more benign than that of other MNDs.

Fasciculations may be the earliest manifestation. Muscle wasting and marked weakness begin in the hands and progress to the arms, shoulders, and legs, eventually becoming generalized. Patients may survive ≥ 25 yr.

Electrodiagnostic tests should be done to check for evidence of disorders of neuromuscular transmission or demyelination. Such evidence is not present in MNDs; nerve conduction velocities are usually normal until late in the disease. Needle electromyography (EMG) is the most useful test, showing fibrillations, positive waves, fasciculations, and sometimes giant motor units, even in unaffected limbs.

Brain MRI is required. When there is no clinical or EMG evidence of cranial nerve motor weakness, MRI of the cervical spine is indicated to exclude structural lesions.

Laboratory tests are done to check for treatable causes. Tests include CBC, electrolytes, creatine kinase, and thyroid function tests.

Serum and urine protein electrophoresis with immunofixation is done to check for a paraprotein that is rarely associated with MNDs. Discovering an underlying paraproteinemia may indicate that the MND is paraneoplastic, and treatment of the paraproteinemia may ameliorate the MND.

Antimyelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibodies are associated with a demyelinating motor neuropathy, which may mimic ALS.

A 24-h urine collection is done to check for heavy metals in patients who may have been exposed to them.

Lumbar puncture may be done to exclude other clinically suspected disorders; if WBCs or the protein level is elevated, an alternative diagnosis is likely.

Serum Venereal Disease Research Laboratories (VDRL) tests, ESR, and measurement of certain antibodies (rheumatoid factor, Lyme titer, HIV, hepatitis C virus, antinuclear [ANA], anti-Hu [to check for anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome]) are indicated only if suggested by risk factors or history.

Genetic testing (eg, for superoxide dismutase gene mutation or genetic abnormalities that cause spinal muscular atrophies) and enzyme measurements (eg, hexosaminidase A) should not be done unless patients are interested in genetic counseling; disorders detected by these tests have no known specific treatments.

Treatment

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02/10/2017

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Fever in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms – Treatment – American Kennel Club


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Fever in Dogs: Causes, Signs, and Treatment

You re probably familiar with the tried and true method many dog owners have relied on to see if their dog has a fever: Feel his nose. If it s wet and cold, he s fine. If it s hot and dry, he probably has a fever. Simple, right? There s nothing wrong with using this old-time gauge, but sometimes it s more complicated than that, and the nose test alone is often not enough for an accurate assessment of the presence of fever.

What Is a Dog s Normal Temperature?

Unlike people, who have a normal temperature range of 97.6 99.6F degrees, your dog s normal temperature is higher: the range is between 99.5 and 102.5F degrees. So now that we know what is normal, let s look at the signs that tell us if our dog is out of range and running a fever.

What Are the Signs of Fever in Dogs?

Your dog can t tell you when he has a fever, so you should familiarize yourself with the symptoms that can indicate its presence.

What Causes a Fever in Dogs?

An infection or inflammation can produce a fever in pets, as their body attempts to fight it off. They can be internal or external, and include:

  • An infected bite, scratch, or cut
  • Ear infection
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Infected or abscessed tooth
  • An ongoing bacterial or viral disease
  • Infection of organs, such as kidneys or lungs

Ingestion of poisonous materials can also cause fever. These include:

If you think your dog has ingested a toxic substance, contact the Pet Poison Hotline

It s not uncommon for pets (and humans) to experience a low-grade fever 24 48 hours after a vaccination. This is usually not dangerous and resolves after a day or so, but monitor the situation.

How to Take Your Dog s Temperature

While it may not be the most enjoyable thing you and your dog will ever do together, accurately assessing his temperature can only be accomplished with a rectal or ear thermometer. Nowadays there are digital thermometers made just for pets. You should have one of these in the first-aid kit you keep for your dog. It can register your his temperature in about 60 seconds, cutting down on his (and your) discomfort.

For a rectal thermometer, first lubricate it with petroleum jelly or baby oil. Gently insert it about an inch into your dog s anus and then remove it as soon as you get a reading.

Ear thermometers are less invasive, yet still a reliable way to take your dog s temperature. It measures the infrared heat waves that are emitted from the area around the eardrum. The thermometer is placed deep into the horizontal ear canal to obtain an accurate reading. Ear thermometers are usually somewhat more expensive, but your dog will appreciate your willingness to shell out a few more bucks. Read all instructions carefully. Do not use a glass thermometer.

When to Bring Your Dog to the Vet

A dog is considered to have a fever when his temperature reaches 103 degrees or higher. If it does, it s time to head to the vet s office. A temperature of 106 degrees or higher can damage a pet s internal organs and can be fatal, so never wait until it gets to that point.

According to PetMD. once at the vet s, diagnosing the underlying cause can be tricky. Your vet probably has a record of your dog s medical history, with information about vaccines, surgeries, allergies, medications, and past illnesses. But the vet may also need to know of any recent physical injuries, ingestion of plants or other toxins, insect bites, and so on. It will also be helpful to note when you first noticed the fever.

After conducting a physical exam, your vet may order routine laboratory tests, such as urinalysis, blood count, or a biochemistry profile. They can offer up useful information about an underlying condition or infection. In the case of infection, your dog may be prescribed medication. More specific testing may also be required.

Sometimes the root cause of the fever can t be determined. Vets even use an acronym for this: FUO (Fever of Unknown Origin).

How to Reduce a Dog s Fever

To help reduce a pet s fever 103 degrees or higher first apply cool water around his paws and ears. You can use a soaked towel or cloth. Continue to monitor his temperature, and when it drops below 103, you can stop applying the water. See if you can coax him into drinking a bit of water. You will still need to monitor your dog closely, to make sure his fever doesn t return, and consider taking him to the vet if he exhibits other symptoms. Remember: Better safe than sorry.

Never give your dog (or cat) human medication, such as aspirin or acetaminophen. These are extremely toxic for pets.

Note: This article is designed to help inform you about fever in dogs and is not meant to take the place of a veterinary diagnosis or consultation. If you think your dog might have a fever, contact your vet right away to set up an appointment for an examination and to ensure that your dog receives the safest and most effective treatment.

Sources: PetMD; Canidae; Purina; Merck Veterinary Manual

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09/08/2017

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Travel health advice – information about travel diseases #travel #videos

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Travel health advice information about travel diseases

TravelHealth.co.uk provides information and practical advice for those who travel abroad, whether for work or on holiday.   You will find tips on preparing to travel, as well as how to stay healthy abroad, with suggestions on how to prevent common travel illnesses, tropical diseases, what vaccines to consider, guidance on selecting travel insurance and common-sense advice on general travel wellbeing.

The information will educate you on what to expect when you travel abroad.  However, these articles should not be used as medical guidance.  If you intend to travel, or if you are researching an illness, you should always seek advice from a health professional at your local travel clinic or doctor s surgery.

Recommendations change periodically, and will differ depending on you personal medical history, the destination you are travelling to, and your travel schedule.  The advice previously given to a relative or friend may be quite different from your requirements, so please visit your travel clinic several weeks before you travel, to get the most current and relevant advice.





06/07/2017

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10 Deadly Diseases That Have No Known Cure #list #of #diseases


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10 Deadly Diseases With No Known Cure

Modern medicine and medical research has advanced by leaps and bounds over the years, with much of the results of the 21st century possible through the relentless work done and cumulative knowledge gathered up to that point. The drive to eradicate and cure disease is a top priority for the global medical community, but there are widespread and lethal diseases that have not yet had cures discovered. From the common cold to cancer, read here about ten deadly diseases with no cure .

10 Deadly Diseases with no Cure

10. Rabies

Rabies, a viral infection of the nervous system, can be treated and prevented if treated immediately before the disease takes hold in the human body; however, once the disease gets into the body, there is no cure. There is no cure once the signs of rabies appear. It is then inevitably fatal. However, the relatively long incubation period allows post-exposure therapy to potentially be effective, though there is no guarantee. Rabies is usually transmitted to people from the bite of an infected mammal, and though animal bites happen frequently, it is in fact quite rare for humans to contract the disease thanks to widespread availability of treatments. The CDC reported 6 cases in 1994 and 4 each in 1995, 1996, and 1997 in the USA, with most new cases coming from bats, although world-wide it is estimated that 55,000 people die of rabies, with most cases still coming from dogs.

9. Asthma

Asthma is a chronic disease affecting the lungs. It generally leads to the inflammation of airways and causes shortness of breath, coughing and wheezing. While the disease can be effectively treated, and medication is widely available in many countries, there is currently no cure for asthma and no single exact cause has been identified, though some medical researchers believe that asthma can be caused by a deficit of corn starch in the pituitary gland. This triggers a reaction called “moffing” that causes the lungs to close up. Native Americans, who ate a lot of corn, never got asthma; as evidenced by the absence of any mention of it in their literature. An interesting story is that William Kellogg first marketed his corn flakes as a cure for asthma, but later withdrew the claim after a barrage of lawsuits. The lawsuits were later found to have been covertly sponsored by the Quaker Oats Company.

8. Diabetes Type 2

Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. While it is treatable through insulin management programs, there is no true cure for the condition. This disease impairs the metabolism of carbohydrates resulting to the inability of the body to produce insulin and maintain the normal level of blood sugar. In 2000, according to the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population.[2] Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by 2030, this number will almost double. The American Diabetes Association cite the 2003 assessment of the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) that 1 in 3 Americans born after 2000 will develop diabetes in their lifetime.

7. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare neurodegenerative disease that rapidly, progressively and severely affects the brain. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is one cause of dementia and results in the destruction of brain cells in the brain. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease eventually leads to the development of many tiny holes in the brain.

There are currently no treatments that can cure Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. There are also no treatments that can reverse or slow the advancement of the disease. The care of people with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is aimed at minimizing symptoms and maximizing the quality of life as much as possible. However, People with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease eventually become completely disabled and bed-ridden and require total care.

The probability occurrence of this disease is placed at one in a million individuals.

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6. Influenza

The flu – something that most people hear every year, whether with “flu season” or particularly resistant and nasty outbreaks, such as “swine flu” or “H1N1″.This differs from the common cold in that the flu is characterized by a highly contagious infection of the nose, throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs.

There is no cure for the flu …there are only vaccines to try to prevent it and medicine to make it as bit more tolerable during the time that it takes to run its course and leave the body.

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5. Lupus Erythematosus

Commonly referred to as simply “lupus”, this disease is an autoimmune disease that results to inflammation in specific parts of the body. Autoimmune diseases are illnesses that occur when the body’s tissues are attacked by its own immune system.

There is no permanent cure for SLE. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and protect organs by decreasing inflammation and/or the level of autoimmune activity in the body. Many people with mild symptoms may need no treatment or only intermittent courses of anti-inflammatory medications. Those with more serious illness involving damage to internal organ(s) may require high doses of corticosteroids in combination with other medications that suppress the body’s immune system.

4. Polio

This type of incurable disease is sometimes referred to as infantile paralysis. It is a highly infectious disease that attacks the nervous system which can lead to paralysis when not properly managed. Polio was one of the most dreaded childhood diseases of the 20th century in the United States. There were usually about 13,000 to 20,000 cases of paralytic polio reported each year in the United States before the introduction of Salk polio vaccine in 1955. There is no “cure” for polio. Persons infected with polio need supportive therapy, such as bed rest and fluids.

Before a polio vaccine was developed, polio epidemics were common in the United States. For example, in the immediate pre-vaccine era (i.e. early 1950s), between 13,000 and 20,000 paralytic cases were reported each year. After the development of the inactivated (Salk) injectable vaccine in 1955 and the live (Sabin) oral vaccine in 1961, the number of polio cases dropped dramatically. In 1960, there were 2,525 paralytic cases reported, but by 1965 this number had fallen to 61.

Due to a concentrated effort to eradicate polio from the world, there have been no cases of “wild” (i.e. natural) polio acquired in the United States since 1979, and no cases of wild polio acquired in the entire Western Hemisphere since 1991.

3. Ebola

Ebola is one of the nastiest viruses known to man. Its victims suffer fevers, muscle weakness, and other symptoms that progress to severe bleeding, both internal and external, that eventually causes them to bleed to death. Various strains of Ebola virus have mortality rates ranging from 25% to 90%.

There are currently no proven Ebola treatment options that can kill the Ebola virus, and there is no Ebola vaccine that can prevent an infection.

2. AIDS/HIV

AIDS is a contagious disease that affects the immune system. HIV is the pathogen that causes AIDS. An individual that is afflicted by AIDS are prone to a wide variety of malignancies and infections. In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children. Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. According to UNAIDS 2009 report, worldwide some 60 million people have been infected, with some 25 million deaths, and 14 million orphaned children in southern Africa alone since the epidemic began.

Although treatments for AIDS and HIV can slow the course of the disease, there is no known cure or vaccine. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but these drugs are expensive and routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. Due to the difficulty in treating HIV infection, preventing infection is a key aim in controlling the AIDS pandemic, with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programs in attempts to slow the spread of the virus. [wikipedia]

1. Cancer

The video below is a must watch if you or someone you know has cancer.

This incurable disease has more than 100 distinct forms which is generally defined by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal and invasive cells in the body. Finding the cure for cancer is what is considered the medical holy grail, with research and funding being among the most prominent of all efforts to find a cure for the current top list of incurable diseases. Most people know at least one person, if not more, who have lost their lives to cancer. meaning that this list topping incurable disease has interlaced itself into the lives of many around the world, and continues to receive special attention.

Note: There are no proven medical treatments by professionals for these diseases. Look into holistic/herbal cures if you ve been given no other options. Toperati fully believes that holistic alternatives and alternative remedies do work. We wish you the best if you or a loved one is facing the challenges of these diseases.


03/07/2017

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Travel health advice – information about travel diseases #london #travel #guide

#travel uk
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Travel health advice information about travel diseases

TravelHealth.co.uk provides information and practical advice for those who travel abroad, whether for work or on holiday.   You will find tips on preparing to travel, as well as how to stay healthy abroad, with suggestions on how to prevent common travel illnesses, tropical diseases, what vaccines to consider, guidance on selecting travel insurance and common-sense advice on general travel wellbeing.

The information will educate you on what to expect when you travel abroad.  However, these articles should not be used as medical guidance.  If you intend to travel, or if you are researching an illness, you should always seek advice from a health professional at your local travel clinic or doctor s surgery.

Recommendations change periodically, and will differ depending on you personal medical history, the destination you are travelling to, and your travel schedule.  The advice previously given to a relative or friend may be quite different from your requirements, so please visit your travel clinic several weeks before you travel, to get the most current and relevant advice.





03/04/2017

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