Fatty Liver Disease (Hepatic Steatosis): Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments #fatty #liver,


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Fatty Liver Disease

Some fat in your liver is normal. But if it makes up more than 5%-10% of the organ’s weight. you may have fatty liver disease. If you’re a drinker, stop. That’s one of the key causes of the condition.

There are two main types of fatty liver disease:

You can also get fatty liver disease during pregnancy .

Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD)

You can get alcoholic liver disease from drinking lots of alcohol. It can even show up after a short period of heavy drinking.

Genes that are passed down from your parents may also play a role in ALD. They can affect the chances that you become an alcoholic. And they can also have an impact on the way your body breaks down the alcohol you drink.

Other things that may affect your chance of getting ALD are:

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

It’s not clear what causes this type of fatty liver disease. It tends to run in families.

It’s also more likely to happen to those who are middle-aged and overweight or obese. People like that often have high cholesterol and diabetes as well.

Other causes are:

Some studies show that too much bacteria in your small intestine and other changes in the intestine may be linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

It’s rare, but fat can build up in your liver when you’re pregnant. This could be risky for both you and your baby. It could lead to liver or kidney failure in either of you. It might also cause a serious infection or bleeding.

No one fully understands why fatty liver happens during pregnancy, but hormones may play a role.

Once you get a diagnosis, it’s important that your baby gets delivered as soon as possible. Although you may need intensive care for several days, your liver often returns to normal in a few weeks.

Continued

Symptoms of Fatty Liver Disease

You might have fatty liver disease and not realize it. There are often no symptoms at first. As time goes on, often years or even decades, you can get problems like:

  • Feeling tired
  • Loss of weight or appetite
  • Weakness
  • Nausea
  • Confusion, poor judgment, or trouble concentrating

You might have some other symptoms, too. Your liver may get larger. You could have a pain in the center or right upper part of your belly. And the skin on your neck or under your arms may have dark, colored patches.

If you have alcoholic liver disease, you may notice that the symptoms get worse after a period of heavy drinking.

You could also get cirrhosis. a scarring of your liver. When that happens, you might have:

Diagnosis of Fatty Liver Disease

You might find out that you have the disease when you get a routine checkup. Your doctor might notice that your liver is a little larger than usual.

Other ways your doctor might spot the disease are:

Blood tests. A high number of certain enzymes could mean you’ve got fatty liver.

Ultrasound . It uses soundwaves to get a picture of your liver. The doctor may also ask for an MRI or cat-scan to get additional images of your liver.

Biopsy . After numbing the area, your doctor puts a needle through your skin and takes out a tiny piece of liver. He looks at it under a microscope for signs of fat, inflammation. and damaged liver cells.

Treatment of Fatty Liver Disease

There is no specific treatment. But you can improve your condition by managing your diabetes. if you have it.

If you have alcoholic liver disease and you are a heavy drinker, quitting is the most important thing you can do. Talk to your doctor about how to get help. If you don’t stop you could get complications like alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis.

Even if you have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it can help to avoid drinking. If you are overweight or obese, do what you can to gradually lose weight — no more than 1 or 2 pounds a week.

Eat a balanced and healthy diet and get regular exercise. Limit high-carb foods such as bread, grits, rice, potatoes, and corn. And cut down on drinks with lots of sugar like sports drinks and juice.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by William Blahd, MD on July 27, 2016

Sources

Liver Foundation: “Fatty Liver Disease,” “Fatty Liver.”

EMedicine: “Alcoholic Fatty Liver.”

NIDDK: “Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.”

American College of Gastroenterology: “Fatty Liver Disease.”

© 2016 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


03/11/2017

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Gastritis: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, and More #gastritis, #stomach #lining,helicobacter #pylori, #gastritis


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What Is Gastritis?

Gastritis is an inflammation. irritation, or erosion of the lining of the stomach. It can occur suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).

What Causes Gastritis?

Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to excessive alcohol use, chronic vomiting. stress, or the use of certain medications such as aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs. It may also be caused by any of the following:

  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) : A bacteria that lives in the mucous lining of the stomach ; without treatment, the infection can lead to ulcers. and in some people, stomach cancer .
  • Bile reflux: A backflow of bile into the stomach from the bile tract (that connects to the liver and gallbladder )
  • Infections caused by bacteria and viruses

If gastritis is left untreated, it can lead to a severe loss of blood and may increase the risk of developing stomach cancer .

What Are the Symptoms of Gastritis?

Symptoms of gastritis vary among individuals, and in many people there are no symptoms. However, the most common symptoms include:

How Is Gastritis Diagnosed?

To diagnose gastritis, your doctor will review your personal and family medical history, perform a thorough physical evaluation, and may recommend any of the following tests:

  • Upper endoscopy . An endoscope. a thin tube containing a tiny camera, is inserted through your mouth and down into your stomach to look at the stomach lining. The doctor will check for inflammation and may perform a biopsy. a procedure in which a tiny sample of tissue is removed and then sent to a laboratory for analysis.
  • Blood tests. The doctor may perform various blood tests, such as checking your red blood cell count to determine whether you have anemia. which means that you do not have enough red blood cells. He or she can also screen for H. pylori infection and pernicious anemia with blood tests.
  • Fecal occult blood test (stool test) . This test checks for the presence of blood in your stool, a possible sign of gastritis.

Continued

What Is the Treatment for Gastritis?

Treatment for gastritis usually involves:

  • Taking antacids and other drugs (such as proton pump inhibitors or H-2 blockers) to reduce stomach acid
  • Avoiding hot and spicy foods
  • For gastritis caused by H. pylori infection, your doctor will prescribe a regimen of several antibiotics plus an acid blocking drug (used for heartburn )
  • If the gastritis is caused by pernicious anemia. B12 vitamin shots will be given.
  • Eliminating irritating foods from your diet such as lactose from dairy or gluten from wheat

Once the underlying problem disappears, the gastritis usually does, too.

You should talk to your doctor before stopping any medicine or starting any gastritis treatment on your own.

What Is the Prognosis for Gastritis?

Most people with gastritis improve quickly once treatment has begun.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson, MD on September 11, 2016

Sources


15/10/2017

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Sample Of An Alcohol Treatment Plan – article about Sample Of


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Sample Of An Alcohol Treatment Plan – article about Sample Of An Alcohol Treatment Plan

Refresh Articles Addictions Sample Of An Alcohol Treatment Plan

The Sample of an Alcohol Treatment Plan

Combating against alcohol addiction can be a real hardship both for you and for your loved ones. Many treatment centers facilitate service for providing relief from the sprains caused by long years of alcohol abuse. The components of the sample of an alcohol treatment plan can be designed precisely by putting emphasis over each individual and their unique needs.

While designing the sample of an alcohol treatment plan, the planner first focuses on ‘initial intervention’ phase. In fact, this is the most essential component of an alcohol treatment plan sample. Without the initial intervention made by a professional interventionist, the treatment can not be progressed further.

It is the responsibility of the interventionist to offer motivation and inspiration to the individuals who are in need for alcohol related treatment. The interventionist can organize and institute the intervention in both effective and motivational fashion. An effective intervention leads to immediate detoxification and rehabilitation.

The next item that comes on line of a well-structured sample of an alcohol treatment plan is alcohol detoxification. The first step of detoxification is of course abstinence followed by an effective elimination of harmful physical and emotional effects of alcohol usage while managing painful and treacherous withdrawal symptoms.

When considering the detoxification phase, a residential treatment always overshadows non residential one in terms of appropriate management pains and critical side effects of withdrawal. The side effects, in some cases, can be so intense that it may lead to mortality. So, an effective sample plan of an alcohol treatment procedure must be prepared by taking these points under consideration.

The alcoholic denial is critically intense. So it is essential to understand the denial. Working effectively with alcoholic denial should be an integral component of the sample plan of an alcohol treatment. At this phase, when the body is free from the harmful effects of the alcohol, the patient should be exposed to understand the complexities of his problem.

In addition, the sample of an alcohol treatment plan should be designed in such a fashion that the treatment will provide the patient the essential space to reflect over his problem from his own perspective. Moreover, a successful plan must incorporate relapse prevention methodologies and enhanced recovery skills training program.

Usually, the ideal treatment plan should accommodate individual counseling and therapy, group therapy, family session, 12-Step meetings, recreational therapy, occupational therapy and many others. The success of the sample of an alcohol treatment plan also depends on sensible execution, expertise, knowledge and effective communication. Let your friends know about this article!About our articles.

a href=”http://www.refresharticles.com/articles/addictions/sample_of_an_alcohol_treatment_plan.txt” Sample Of An Alcohol Treatment Plan /a


07/10/2017

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Hypothyroid Symptoms – Itching #all #symptoms #of #hypothyroid


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Hypothyroid Symptoms Itching

by DR. TINA M. ST. JOHN Last Updated: Apr 28, 2015

Tina M. St. John runs a health communications and consulting firm. She is also an author and editor, and was formerly a senior medical officer with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. St. John holds an M.D. from Emory University School of Medicine.

A woman is itching her neck. Photo Credit Tharakorn/iStock/Getty Images

Overview

The thyroid hormones affect nearly all tissues of the human body, including the skin. Skin tissues contain thyroid hormone receptors which, when occupied by thyroid hormones, stimulate cellular activity. Patients with hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid disease, may experience skin symptoms that reflect diminished cellular skin activity in the absence of sufficient thyroid hormone. Some skin changes associated with hypothyroidism may cause itching.

Skin Dryness and Scaling

Up to 90 percent of patients with hypothyroidism experience skin dryness and scaling, according to the medical textbook Werner Ingbar s The Thyroid. When examined under the microscope, the skin of patients with hypothyroidism exhibits thinning and increased keratin, a protein found in the uppermost layer of the skin and in the hair and nails. The increased keratin and impaired shedding of old cells gives the skin a scaly appearance.

Decreased production of certain fats in the skin may contribute to skin dryness with hypothyroidism. Skin dryness in patients with hypothyroidism often proves worst on the palms, soles, elbows and knees, although the entire skin surface is typically involved. Dryness and scaling of the skin commonly causes itching. In patients with severe hypothyroidism-related skin dryness and itching, persistent scratching may lead to abrasions and localized infection.

Ichythyosis

Some patients with hypothyroidism develop a severe form of skin scaling known as acquired ichthyosis. This condition represents a more advanced form of the scaling more commonly seen in patients with hypothyroidism. Itching frequently accompanies the scaling that characterizes acquired ichthyosis.

Hives

Patients with hypothyroidism may exhibit hives, or urticaria, which characteristically prove intensely itchy. In a 2006 article on the skin manifestations of hypothyroidism published in the Indian Journal of Dermatology, Dr. Alka Dogra and colleagues report that approximately 16 percent of study patients exhibited hives. The authors note that the mechanism by which thyroid hormone deficiency provokes hives remains uncertain.

Blistering Rash

Dermatitis herpetiformis is a profoundly itchy, blistering rash that may occur in patients with hypothyroidism. Dermatitis herpetiformis which is unrelated to the herpes viruses typically affects the skin of the back, knees, elbows and buttocks on both sides of the body.

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01/10/2017

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Alcohol Withdrawal: Symptoms, Treatments, Duration, and More #alcohol #withdrawal, #alcohol #withdrawal


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Alcohol Withdrawal

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur in people who have been drinking heavily for weeks, months, or years and then either stop or significantly reduce their alcohol consumption.

Alcohol withdrawal symptoms can begin as early as two hours after the last drink, persist for weeks, and range from mild anxiety and shakiness to severe complications, such as seizures and delirium tremens (also called DTs). The death rate from DTs — which are characterized by confusion, rapid heartbeat, and fever — is estimated to range from 1% to 5%.

Because alcohol withdrawal symptoms can rapidly worsen, it’s important to seek medical attention even if symptoms are seemingly mild. Appropriate alcohol withdrawal treatments can reduce the risk of developing withdrawal seizures or DTs.

It’s especially important to see a doctor if you’ve experienced previous alcohol withdrawal episodes or if you have other health conditions such as infections, heart disease. lung disease. or a history of seizures.

Severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a medical emergency. If seizures, fever, severe confusion, hallucinations. or irregular heartbeats occur, either take the patient to an emergency room or call 911.

Causes of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

Heavy, prolonged drinking — especially excessive daily drinking — disrupts the brain ‘s neurotransmitters, the brain chemicals that transmit messages.

For example, alcohol initially enhances the effect of GABA, the neurotransmitter which produces feelings of relaxation and calm. But chronic alcohol consumption eventually suppresses GABA activity so that more and more alcohol is required to produce the desired effects, a phenomenon known as tolerance.

Chronic alcohol consumption also suppresses the activity of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which produces feelings of excitability. To maintain equilibrium, the glutamate system responds by functioning at a far higher level than it does in moderate drinkers and nondrinkers.

When heavy drinkers suddenly stop or significantly reduce their alcohol consumption, the neurotransmitters previously suppressed by alcohol are no longer suppressed. They rebound, resulting in a phenomenon known as brain hyperexcitability. So, the effects associated with alcohol withdrawal — anxiety. irritability, agitation, tremors, seizures, and DTs — are the opposite of those associated with alcohol consumption.

Continued

Symptoms of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

In general, how severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms become depends on how much and for how long a person has been drinking.

Minor alcohol withdrawal symptoms often appear 6 to 12 hours after a person stops drinking. Sometimes a person will still have a measurable blood alcohol level when symptoms start. These symptoms include:

Between 12 and 24 hours after they stop drinking, some patients may experience visual, auditory, or tactile hallucinations. These usually end within 48 hours. Although this condition is called alcoholic hallucinosis, it’s not the same as the hallucinations associated with DTs. Most patients are aware that the unusual sensations aren’t real.

Withdrawal seizures usually first strike between 24 and 48 hours after someone stops drinking, although they can appear as early as 2 hours after drinking stops. The risk of seizures is especially high in patients who previously have undergone multiple detoxifications.

DTs usually begin between 48 and 72 hours after drinking has stopped, Risk factors for DTs include a history of withdrawal seizures or DTs, acute medical illness, abnormal liver function, and older age.

Symptoms of DTs, which usually peak at 5 days, include:

  • Disorientation, confusion, and severe anxiety
  • Hallucinations (primarily visual) which cannot be distinguished from reality
  • Profuse sweating
  • Seizures
  • High blood pressure
  • Racing and irregular heartbeat
  • Severe tremors
  • Low-grade fever

Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

If alcohol withdrawal syndrome is suspected, your doctor will take a complete medical history and ask how much you drink, how long you’ve been drinking, and how much time has elapsed since your last drink. He or she also will want to know if you have a history of alcohol withdrawal, if you abuse any other substances, and if you have any medical or psychiatric conditions.

During a physical exam. your doctor will identify alcohol withdrawal symptoms and any potential complicating medical conditions such as irregular heartbeats, congestive heart failure. coronary artery disease. gastrointestinal bleeding, infections, liver disease, nervous system impairment, and pancreatitis. He or she also may order blood tests to measure complete blood count. alcohol and electrolyte levels, liver function. and a urine screen to identify drug use.

The results of the medical history and physical exam will help your doctor decide if you have alcohol withdrawal syndrome and, if so, its severity.

Continued

Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

If you have mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms, your doctor may prefer to treat you in an outpatient setting, especially if you have supportive family and friends. Outpatient detoxification is safe, effective, and less costly than inpatient detoxification at a hospital or other facility.

However, you may require inpatient treatment if you don’t have a reliable social network, are pregnant. or have a history of any of the following:

  • Severe withdrawal symptoms
  • Withdrawal seizures or DTs
  • Multiple previous detoxifications
  • Certain medical or psychiatric illnesses

The goals of treatment are threefold: reducing immediate withdrawal symptoms, preventing complications, and beginning long-term therapy to promote alcohol abstinence.

Prescription drugs of choice include benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (Valium ), chlordiazepoxide (Librium ), lorazepam (Ativan ), and oxazepam (Serax ). Such medications can help control the shakiness, anxiety, and confusion associated with alcohol withdrawal and reduce the risk of withdrawal seizures and DTs. In patients with mild to moderate symptoms, the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (Tegretol ) may be an effective alternative to benzodiazepines, because it is not sedating and has low potential for abuse.

To help manage withdrawal complications, your doctor may consider adding other drugs to a benzodiazepine regimen. These may include:

  • An antipsychotic drug, which can help relieve agitation and hallucinations
  • A beta-blocker, which may help curb a fast heart rate and elevated blood pressure related to withdrawal and reduce the strain of alcohol withdrawal in people with coronary artery disease
  • Clonidine (Catapres ), another blood pressure drug
  • Phenytoin (Dilantin ), an anticonvulsant which doesn’t treat withdrawal seizures but may be useful in people with an underlying seizure disorder

Preventing Future Alcohol Withdrawal Episodes

Because successful treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome doesn’t address the underlying disease of addiction, it should be followed by treatment for alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence.

Relatively brief outpatient interventions can be effective for alcohol abuse, but more intensive therapy may be required for alcohol dependence. If you have alcohol dependence, your doctor may prescribe other medications to help you stop drinking. He or she also may recommend joining a 12-step group — such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous — or staying at a comprehensive treatment facility that offers a combination of a 12-step model, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and family therapy.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian on February 09, 2017

Sources

SOURCES:
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
FamilyDoctor.org: “Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome.”
Bayard, M. American Family Physician. March 15, 2004.

© 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


20/09/2017

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Norovirus (Winter Vomiting Bug): Symptoms and Treatment #norovirus, #norovirus #infection, #norovirus


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The highly contagious norovirus can tear through cruise ships, classrooms, and other crowded spaces, leaving vomiting. diarrhea. and stomach cramps in its wake.

It spreads easily through food and drink and can have a big impact on people’s health. The CDC estimates that noroviruses are responsible for more than half of all food-borne disease outbreaks each year.

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What Are Noroviruses?

Worldwide, noroviruses are thought to be the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting illness).

On average, noroviruses cause 19 million to 21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the U.S. per year, according to the CDC. The norovirus was originally called the Norwalk virus, after the town of Norwalk, OH, where the first confirmed outbreak happened in 1972.

Because there are many different types of noroviruses, exposure to one type may not protect you from other types.

While they can strike year round, they’re more common in the winter, says Edward Gaydos, DO. a pediatrician at the Cleveland Clinic. (Norovirus is also called the “winter vomiting bug.”)

“You’re miserable for 1 to 3 days,” says Gaydos. “It’s usually an abrupt onset and a quick recovery. It’s a nuisance, but it’s not something to panic about. Most people will do fine with it.”

Noroviruses are sometimes called food poisoning. because they can be transmitted through food that’s been contaminated with the virus. They aren’t always the result of food contamination, though.

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Is Norovirus the Stomach Flu?

Norovirus is not related to flu. Flu is an infection of the respiratory system that causes fever. chills, aches, and pains. In fact, there’s no such thing as stomach flu, and it’s a term that Gaydos encourages patients to avoid. The confusion that it causes can have serious consequences.

“Sometimes people don’t want the flu shot because they say they’ve already had a stomach flu,” says Gaydos. “I try not to use that term.”

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What Causes Infection With Noroviruses?

People become infected with noroviruses when they eat or drink contaminated foods and beverages. Raw or undercooked oysters and raw fruits and vegetables have been implicated in some outbreaks. You can also get infected if you touch an object or surface that has been infected with the virus and then touch your nose, mouth. or eyes .


07/09/2017

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Treatment Options for Prescription Drug Addiction #addiction, #drug #addiction, #methadone, #suboxone,


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Treating an Addiction to Painkillers

Opioid addiction isn’t a moral or mental weakness. It’s a chronic medical condition that results from changes in the brain in susceptible people. Once narcotic addiction has developed, escaping the cycle of detox and relapse is typically a long-term process.

Breaking free of prescription drug abuse takes much more than willpower. Fortunately, medications and counseling can improve the chances of success. Newer drugs like buprenorphine (sometimes combined with naloxone. a combination called Suboxone), naltrexone (given by mouth as the drug Revia or by a monthly injection called Vivitrol ), and traditional therapies like methadone along with12-step programs are helping thousands of people stay on the road to recovery.

Physical Dependence and Detoxification

Narcotic addiction leads to real changes in certain areas of the brain. Prescription drug addiction alters the circuits responsible for mood and “reward” behaviors.

In addition, long-term prescription drug abuse affects virtually all the systems in the body. Cutting off the supply abruptly leads to opioid withdrawal symptoms.

Symptoms of opioid withdrawal include:

But for someone with an established narcotic addiction, a list of symptoms doesn’t capture the agony of opioid withdrawal. The syndrome is intensely unpleasant, and people will do almost anything to avoid it.

Opioid withdrawal lasts from hours to several days — and sometimes weeks — depending on how long and how much a person has used their drug of choice. After the intense initial symptoms subside, some physical and mental discomfort may persist for weeks.

Medications for Opioid Withdrawal

Opioid withdrawal is difficult to endure, and is a major reason for relapse and continued prescription drug abuse. Medications are used to prevent symptoms of opioid withdrawal during detox, easing the person out of physical dependence:

Methadone is a long-acting opioid drug. It activates the same opioid receptors as other narcotics, effectively eliminating withdrawal symptoms. Providing the correct dose of methadone prevents opioid withdrawal symptoms and eases drug craving but it does not provide the euphoria. The dose can be slowly tapered off, freeing the person from physical dependence without withdrawal symptoms. Methadone is the most effective known treatment for narcotic addiction.

Continued

Buprenorphine alone (Subutex ) or buprenorphine plus naloxone (Suboxone) is a newer drug that helps with detox from opioid addiction. Buprenorphine activates opioid receptors, reducing drug craving and preventing withdrawal. Naloxone helps prevent misuse of the medication. Subutex is typically used for acute opiate detoxification, while Suboxone is used either for acute detoxification or maintenance prevention of opiate relapse.

Clonidine is a blood pressure medicine that acts on the brain. Clonidine reduces the effects of the “fight or flight” response, which is over-activated during opioid withdrawal. However, clonidine does not reduce drug craving and is less effective when used alone.

“Rapid detox” programs claim to accelerate the process of detox and opioid withdrawal by giving large doses of opioid blocking drugs. Some programs place an addict under general anesthesia during the detox process. These programs have not proven to be more effective than traditional methods of detox, and may be more dangerous.

Maintenance Therapy After Detox

Completing detox subdues the physical effects of narcotic addiction and opioid withdrawal. But experts say psychological and social factors are the main drivers that push addicts back to using. Stress and situations that remind the brain of the drug’s pleasure are common triggers.

When drug cravings strike, they can be extremely hard to resist. Most people who only go through detox and short-term counseling without maintenance treatment will most likely relapse to prescription drug abuse.

Studies show that the chances of beating narcotic addiction are better with long-term maintenance therapy with either methadone or buprenorphine paired with naloxone (Zubsolv, Bunavail, Suboxone) . These drugs are used during the maintenance phase of treatment. People on these drugs are still opioid-dependent, but they are often freed from their destructive drug addiction. They can return to work, drive without impairment, and function normally in society. Naloxone has also been combined with oxycontin ( Targiniq ER ) to deter abuse by snorting or injecting the drug. A person can still become addicted by taking it orally, however.

Methadone is the best-studied, most effective method of recovery from narcotic addiction. Suboxone, while newer, has gained wide acceptance as maintenance therapy.

Continued

A form of buprenorphone than can be implanted under the skin (called Probuphine ) is now available to help prevent opiate relapse in people who have already completed detox and are stable on an oral form of buprenorphine. It provides a constant dose of buprenorphine for six months.

Some people have a high rate of relapse when maintenance therapy is stopped, and so they remain on the medicines indefinitely. In others, maintenance therapy is tapered off over months to years.

Naltrexone (ReVia, Vivitrol) is an opiate receptor-blocking medication used in maintenance therapy for narcotic addiction. Unlike methadone and Suboxone, naltrexone does not activate receptors at all, so it does not reduce opioid withdrawal or craving. However, because naltrexone blocks opiate receptors, a person won’t get high if he or she uses drugs while taking the medicine. The drug is is most effective when used as part of a broader comprehensive recovery treatment program.

Counseling and 12-Step Programs

Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is an international network of community-based meetings for those recovering from drug addiction. Modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), NA is a 12-step program with a defined process for overcoming narcotic addiction.

NA is an abstinence-based program. In principle, NA is opposed to the use of maintenance therapy. Methadone Anonymous is a 12-step program that acknowledges the value of methadone or Suboxone in recovery from narcotic addiction.

Most experts and treatment centers recommend participation in a 12-step-based treatment program or other form of counseling. Therapy can take place as an outpatient, or in a residential facility. Alternatives to 12-step-based programs include:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Motivational interviewing
  • Family and couples therapy

Recovery from prescription drug addiction can be expensive. However, it is far less costly in comparison with the cost of addiction and continuous use of drugs.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Joseph Goldberg, MD on July 16, 2016

Sources

Carroll K.M. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2005.
FDA. “FDA approves first buprenorphine implant for treatment of opioid dependence.”
Kosten, T.R. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003.
Mattick, R.P. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2003.
Medline Plus: “Opiate withdrawal.”
Moore Jefferson, Handbook of Medical Psychiatry, 2nd edition, Mosby 2004.
Narcotics Anonymous web site.
National Library of Medicine web site: “
Van den Brink, W. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 2006.

© 2016 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


04/09/2017

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Water Damage Mold To Find and Get Rid Of Mold #water


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Water Damage Mold

You may notice some water damage mold growing in a damp area where you had a leaky pipe under the kitchen sink or a leaky roof. The mold from water leak is unsightly, but did you realize it can also be hazardous to your health? It can. Mold has been associated with a wide range of symptoms, some severe.

Symptoms

Symptoms associated with mold from water leak include upper respiratory tract infections, chronic sinus infections, increased susceptibility to colds, coughing, sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, watery eyes, sore throat, headache, fatigue, trouble sleeping, dizziness, depression and difficulty concentrating. People that have asthma often experience an increase in symptoms and occasionally someone not previously diagnosed with the condition develops asthma after exposure to mold from a water leak. Small children, the elderly, those with respiratory problems like emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and those with compromised immune systems (conditions like HIV and AIDS) are at greater risk for symptoms but anyone living in home with water damage mold can be affected.

Signs of Mold from Water Leak

Signs of mold from water leak include visible mold, usually black or gray in color, either patchy or streaky, and the mold from water leak usually looks slimy. You may also notice peeling paint, water stains on walls or ceilings, buckled drywall or buckled shelves under your kitchen or bathroom sinks, and a musty smell. While you can probably determine for yourself that you have a problem with water damage mold, it’s hard to determine what type of mold you’re dealing with, which makes it hard to know exactly what health risks you’re facing or the best way to clean it up.

This basement was flooded, and the water eventually caused mold to grow. The house was uninhabitable until the mold was removed.

Cleaning Up Mold Damage

The first step to cleaning up mold from water leak is to fix the leak. You may then need to install a dehumidifier for a time to dry up all the excess moisture. It’s recommended that you seal off the affected area as best as you can so that mold spores don’t travel to other areas of your home during the cleanup. Some people try to clean up toxic mold with soap and water, household bleach and water, or hydrogen peroxide, but we recommended a commercial disinfectant designed for that purpose. You’ll gain the peace of mind that comes from knowing you’re killing any toxic mold and you won’t have to repeat the cleanup multiple times before the job is done.

While many nonporous surfaces can be cleaned, some porous items may have to be discarded. It depends on the severity of the mold damage. Dispose of damaged items sealed in heavy plastic bags.

Cleanup has been successful when there is no visible mold on surfaces and no traces of mold spores in the air. Physical symptoms of exposure to toxic mold should clear up quickly after a thorough cleanup has been completed.

Getting Professional Help

We suggest you call in a professional if you have water damage mold in your home. You can get a list of Licensed Professionals in your area by following the link. A professional will visit your home to conduct a free assessment of the damage, give you some free advice about cleaning up the mold and present you with a free estimate of how much it will cost to have the mold professionally cleaned up. It can be a difficult thing to deal with on your own and with your own health and the health of your family at risk, we really encourage you to at least consult with a qualified professional before deciding how to address your mold problem.


29/08/2017

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First Week Signs Of Pregnancy #pregnancy #symptoms #one #week #after #conception


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First Week Signs Of Pregnancy – Get To Know Them

To most of us, the first week sign of pregnancy is normally a missed period. However, you can only be sure if a home pregnancy test or a blood test gives a positive result. A missed period cannot be construed to be a 100% proof of pregnancy as it can be caused by various other factors such as use of birth control medication, stress, illness, quick loss or gain of weight or use of new medicines. There could be some other medical reason if you miss your menstrual cycle more than once.

The first week sign of pregnancy could be confusing if you have bleeding when the menstrual cycle is expected. This is known as implantation bleeding and it is light pink or brown in color. It can occur between 6 and 12 days after ovulation when the egg is fertilized and the implantation takes place in the uterus. This bleeding might send the wrong signal that you are not pregnant but this is not the case. As long as you do not get back pain, cramping or increased bleeding, implantation bleeding can do no harm.

The first week of pregnancy symptoms include feeling tired, getting irritated, tenderness of breasts, either craving or aversion to food, heightening of the sensitivity to smell, light-headedness or feeling dizzy. Some of these symptoms might be menstruation related and some or all of the symptoms might form part of first week symptoms of pregnancy. Each woman reacts differently to pregnancy and has different levels of symptoms. These symptoms are the result of the escalating levels of progesterone, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and estrogen that are essential for the proper growth and protection of the fetus, strengthening of the pelvic walls, and prevention of uterus contraction.

The first week signs of pregnancy also include frequent urination especially during the night. This is due to the increase in the processing of fluids through the kidneys because of the high blood flow during pregnancy. Consumption of beverages should be avoided a few hours prior to bedtime although high consumption of water during the day is recommended. You could be having urinary tract infection if you experience burning during urination. The first week of pregnancy symptoms should prompt you to go in for a home pregnancy test or a blood test to confirm the pregnancy as these symptoms could also be due to menstruation or health problems. In any case, you should read a lot about these symptoms in order to gain more knowledge.

The early signs of pregnancy first week could begin with the lightening of your period or complete stoppage of the same. You could start experiencing nausea, morning sickness or queasiness. These symptoms can cause utter disruption to your body systems and you should take small meals at regular intervals throughout the day. The first week signs of pregnancy might also manifest themselves in the form of swelling and tenderness of your breasts and darkness around the nipples, which could become broader as well.

You will start feeling the need to urinate more often and you will get tired more easily. The other symptoms could include constipation, heartburn, headaches, and mood swings. If you start experiencing these symptoms, you should visit your healthcare provider immediately. The first week signs of pregnancy should prompt you to get serious about your lifestyle and abstain from consuming addictive substances, as these might be harmful to you and your baby.

You may be interested in the following articles as well:


14/08/2017

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Mesothelioma: Symptoms and Causes #mesothelioma, #causes #of #mesothelioma, #mesothelioma #symptoms, #symptoms


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Mesothelioma: Causes and Symptoms

Mesothelioma is cancer of the mesothelium, a protective membrane that lines most of the body’s internal organs. Three out of every four cases cases of mesothelioma disease begin in the pleural mesothelium of the chest cavity. Mesothelioma can also begin in the abdominal cavity and around the heart .

Regardless of where they originate, malignant cells from the mesothelium can invade and damage nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also metastasize, or spread, to other parts of the body.

Often by the time mesothelioma is diagnosed, the disease is advanced. The five-year survival rate is around 5% to 10%. Most patients with mesothelioma die as a result of respiratory failure or pneumonia. Some patients develop a small-bowel obstruction when a tumor extends through the diaphragm. A smaller number die of cardiac complications when the tumor invades the pericardium — the thin membrane that surrounds the heart — and the heart itself.

Mesothelioma is a relatively rare form of cancer. About 3,000 new cases of the disease are diagnosed in the U.S. each year.

Causes of Mesothelioma

The main risk factor for mesothelioma is working with asbestos. Asbestos is a group of minerals with thin microscopic fibers. Because these fibers are resistant to heat, fire, and chemicals and do not conduct electricity, asbestos has been mined and used widely in the construction, automotive, and other industries.

If tiny asbestos fibers are released into the air, as they are in the manufacturing process, they can be inhaled or swallowed, leading to serious health problems. As many as 75% of mesothelioma cases can be linked to exposure to asbestos at work. There is also some evidence that family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma, and possibly other asbestos-related diseases. This risk may be the result of exposure to asbestos dust brought home on the clothing and hair of asbestos workers. Cases of mesothelioma have also been seen in people living close to asbestos mines.

However, mesothelioma has been reported in some individuals without any known exposure to asbestos. Other, uncommon, but possible causes include:

Continued

Zeolites. These minerals are chemically related to asbestos. One of these related minerals, erionite, is common in the soil in some areas of Turkey, according to the American Cancer Society. Exposure to erionite is believed to be responsible for high rates of mesothelioma rates in those areas.

Radiation . The American Cancer Society notes that there have been a few published reports of mesotheliomas that developed following exposure to high doses of radiation to the chest or abdomen or after injections of thorium dioxide (Thorotrast ), a material used by doctors in some chest X-rays until the 1950s.

SV40 virus. Some studies in laboratory animals have raised the possibility that infection with the simian virus 40 (SV40) might increase the risk of developing mesothelioma, according to the American Cancer Society. Some injectable polio vaccines given between 1955 and 1963 were contaminated with SV40, exposing as many as 30 million people in the U.S. to the virus. So far, the largest studies addressing this issue in humans have not found an increased risk for mesothelioma or other cancers among people who received the contaminated vaccines as children.

Genetics. Some experts believe certain people may be genetically predisposed to mesothelioma. Rates of the disease vary among populations.

Symptoms of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma symptoms commonly do not appear until 20 to 50 years after initial asbestos exposure.

The main symptoms of mesothelioma of the lungs are shortness of breath and chest pain. Accumulation of fluid in the pleura caused by the mesothelioma, if sufficiently large, may also contribute to the shortness of breath.

Symptoms of peritoneal (abdominal) mesothelioma can include:

If cancer has spread to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, swallowing difficulties, or swelling of the neck or face.

Because many conditions share these symptoms, having these symptoms doesn’t necessarily mean you have mesothelioma. It’s important to see your doctor to determine what is causing them.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on July 14, 2017

Sources

Brigham and Women’s Hospital International Mesothelioma Program: “Mesothelioma.”

National Cancer Institute: Fact Sheet: “Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk.”

National Cancer Institute: “Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers.”

American Cancer Society: “Detailed Guide: Malignant Mesothelioma What Are the Risk Factors for Malignant Mesothelioma?”

© 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


13/08/2017

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Fever in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms – Treatment – American Kennel Club


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Fever in Dogs: Causes, Signs, and Treatment

You re probably familiar with the tried and true method many dog owners have relied on to see if their dog has a fever: Feel his nose. If it s wet and cold, he s fine. If it s hot and dry, he probably has a fever. Simple, right? There s nothing wrong with using this old-time gauge, but sometimes it s more complicated than that, and the nose test alone is often not enough for an accurate assessment of the presence of fever.

What Is a Dog s Normal Temperature?

Unlike people, who have a normal temperature range of 97.6 99.6F degrees, your dog s normal temperature is higher: the range is between 99.5 and 102.5F degrees. So now that we know what is normal, let s look at the signs that tell us if our dog is out of range and running a fever.

What Are the Signs of Fever in Dogs?

Your dog can t tell you when he has a fever, so you should familiarize yourself with the symptoms that can indicate its presence.

What Causes a Fever in Dogs?

An infection or inflammation can produce a fever in pets, as their body attempts to fight it off. They can be internal or external, and include:

  • An infected bite, scratch, or cut
  • Ear infection
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Infected or abscessed tooth
  • An ongoing bacterial or viral disease
  • Infection of organs, such as kidneys or lungs

Ingestion of poisonous materials can also cause fever. These include:

If you think your dog has ingested a toxic substance, contact the Pet Poison Hotline

It s not uncommon for pets (and humans) to experience a low-grade fever 24 48 hours after a vaccination. This is usually not dangerous and resolves after a day or so, but monitor the situation.

How to Take Your Dog s Temperature

While it may not be the most enjoyable thing you and your dog will ever do together, accurately assessing his temperature can only be accomplished with a rectal or ear thermometer. Nowadays there are digital thermometers made just for pets. You should have one of these in the first-aid kit you keep for your dog. It can register your his temperature in about 60 seconds, cutting down on his (and your) discomfort.

For a rectal thermometer, first lubricate it with petroleum jelly or baby oil. Gently insert it about an inch into your dog s anus and then remove it as soon as you get a reading.

Ear thermometers are less invasive, yet still a reliable way to take your dog s temperature. It measures the infrared heat waves that are emitted from the area around the eardrum. The thermometer is placed deep into the horizontal ear canal to obtain an accurate reading. Ear thermometers are usually somewhat more expensive, but your dog will appreciate your willingness to shell out a few more bucks. Read all instructions carefully. Do not use a glass thermometer.

When to Bring Your Dog to the Vet

A dog is considered to have a fever when his temperature reaches 103 degrees or higher. If it does, it s time to head to the vet s office. A temperature of 106 degrees or higher can damage a pet s internal organs and can be fatal, so never wait until it gets to that point.

According to PetMD. once at the vet s, diagnosing the underlying cause can be tricky. Your vet probably has a record of your dog s medical history, with information about vaccines, surgeries, allergies, medications, and past illnesses. But the vet may also need to know of any recent physical injuries, ingestion of plants or other toxins, insect bites, and so on. It will also be helpful to note when you first noticed the fever.

After conducting a physical exam, your vet may order routine laboratory tests, such as urinalysis, blood count, or a biochemistry profile. They can offer up useful information about an underlying condition or infection. In the case of infection, your dog may be prescribed medication. More specific testing may also be required.

Sometimes the root cause of the fever can t be determined. Vets even use an acronym for this: FUO (Fever of Unknown Origin).

How to Reduce a Dog s Fever

To help reduce a pet s fever 103 degrees or higher first apply cool water around his paws and ears. You can use a soaked towel or cloth. Continue to monitor his temperature, and when it drops below 103, you can stop applying the water. See if you can coax him into drinking a bit of water. You will still need to monitor your dog closely, to make sure his fever doesn t return, and consider taking him to the vet if he exhibits other symptoms. Remember: Better safe than sorry.

Never give your dog (or cat) human medication, such as aspirin or acetaminophen. These are extremely toxic for pets.

Note: This article is designed to help inform you about fever in dogs and is not meant to take the place of a veterinary diagnosis or consultation. If you think your dog might have a fever, contact your vet right away to set up an appointment for an examination and to ensure that your dog receives the safest and most effective treatment.

Sources: PetMD; Canidae; Purina; Merck Veterinary Manual

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09/08/2017

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OBGYN Of Lancaster #obgyn #of #lancaster, #obgyn #lancaster #pa, #obgyn #of


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OBGYN Doctors Dedicated to Women’s Healthcare Needs in Lancaster, PA

Located next to Lancaster Women’s & Babies Hospital in Lancaster, PA, Lancaster Physicians for Women is a unique OBGYN practice dedicated to the healthcare needs of women of all ages.

Our board-certified OBGYN physicians don’t simply treat patients – we understand them. That’s because our physicians aren’t just doctors. We’re women, too!

Our philosophy emphasizes individualized obstetrical and gynecological care with a high regard for our patients’ needs and preferences. Our doctors value open communication with our patients and encourage a team approach to making decisions.

Contact us to schedule your first appointment at our Lancaster, PA office and see the difference we can make for you!

Lancaster Physicians for Women accepts most insurance plans. Please call our office if you wish to verify that we accept your particular coverage. We’re happy to help!

Contact Us

LANCASTER PHYSICIANS FOR WOMEN
694 Good Drive Suite 203
Lancaster, PA 17601

Phone: (717) 544-3788
Fax: (717) 544-3789

Make an Appointment

If you would like to request an appointment please call our office at (717) 544-3788 and we will be glad to help you. For general practice questions you may call us or fill out the

In a Medical Emergency

If you have a medical concern, please call our office as we cannot offer medical advice via this website. After hour calls will be directed to our answering service and forwarded to our physician on call.

2017, Lancaster Physicians for Women. All Rights Reserved.


06/08/2017

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Hives on Face #hives, #hives #treatment, #hives #rash, #hives #on #face,


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Hives Treatment Center Over 150,000 patients helped since 2001

What Are Hives On Face?

Hives on face are raised, flat-topped bumps that are smooth to the touch, typically red in color and commonly referred to as facial hives. They can occur anywhere on your face and neck, including the lips, eyes and ears. They are often incredibly itchy and are usually accompanied by a burning sensation (similar to a sunburn) when touched.

Facial hives can also be accompanied by facial swelling that is brought on by the body building up fluids in the tissues of your face. This facial swelling is medically referred to as angioedema. It is not uncommon for this swelling to spread to your neck and upper arms. Once you get hives on face, you can expect to be revisited by them on a regular basis without proper treatment. Hives on face are usually not a one time event, but a sign of what is to come in the future. They are also often passed on from generation to generation.

Best Facial Hives Treatment

What Causes Hives On Face?

Hives on face are caused by your body perceiving something your face has come in contact with as being dangerous and thus releases histamine into your face to try to fight off the attack. In essence, you have an allergic reaction to something that touched your face and the hives / welts that appear on your face are your body’s way of trying to fight off the allergen.

Most of the time, the cause of hives on face is never identified with 100% accuracy. However, there are some common triggers for angioedema and facial hives:

Excessive sun exposure – even with sunscreen (see sun hives )

Toiletries (soaps, shampoos, conditioners, etc.)

Drug allergies (antibiotics, aspirin, sulfa, penicillin, ACE inhibitors like blood pressure medications, etc.)

Overexposure to cold (see cold hives ), heat (see heat hives ) or water

Food allergies (shellfish, eggs, nuts, milk, berries, fish, etc.)

Certain fabrics (blankets, sheets, etc.)

Insect stings and bites

Pollen or hay fever

Infections or illnesses like Lupus and Leukemia

Some not so common causes include obesity, facial surgery (head, nose or jaw), injury to your face, blood transfusion, cellulitis, sinusitis, tooth abscess, etc.

Some people believe that facial hives goes hand in hand with menopause. This is simply not true. However, there are many hormonal changes that take place during the many stages of menopause, and this alone can cause hives. But this does not mean that all women who go through menopause will experience hives on face.

What Are The Symptoms of Facial Hives?

The most common hives on face symptoms include:

Small round raised swollen areas, rings or large patches of red or skin colored welts.

Intense itchiness accompanied by burning sensation when touched.

Face can feel hot to the touch and can turn bright red – like a sunburn.

Often accompanied by swollen face, mouth, ears and eyes as the body rushes fluids to the area (angioedema ).

Hives can extend from the face down the neck and onto the shoulders.

When inflammation goes down, the skin can be scaly from being swollen and the skin can be sensitive.

Are The Hives On My Face Dangerous?

In my experience, just over half of the people we’ve heard from with hives on their face also have angioedema. which causes uncomfortable swelling beneath the skin. When this causes throat swelling, some people can have breathing difficulties, which can result in death if not treated quickly by your local emergency room. If you find that you are having problems breathing, seek immediate medical help! If you also have a fever. this may be a sign of an infection and you should contact your primary care physician to discuss treatment options.

How Do I Get Rid Of My Facial Hives?

For temporary relief of hives on your face, wash your face with cold water 3-4 times. This should sooth the itch and burning sensation that comes with facial hives. Applying a cold compresses should also provide temporary relief by reducing the swelling in your face. Try to keep your head above your heart as much as possible as well. When sleeping, try to keep your head raised by using an extra pillow or two. This will also help reduce the swelling associated with the hives on your face. Be sure to see our How To Get Rid Of Hives Fast page as well.

For permanent relief, you will need to take a hives treatment that is proven to be effective at eliminating facial hives outbreaks. Benedryl is NOT a cure for facial hives. It only marginally helps treat the symptoms and not the hives themselves. This is why antihistamines are a poor substitute for a real hives cure.


01/08/2017

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Acid Reflux Symptoms: Heartburn, Regurgitation, Dyspepsia, and More #acid #reflux #symptoms,


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Acid Reflux Symptoms

Lots of people are intimately familiar with acid reflux symptoms. More than 60 million Americans experience acid reflux at least once a month. Acid reflux disease, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD ), can produce a variety of symptoms.

What Are the Common Acid Reflux Symptoms?

Heartburn. regurgitation, and dyspepsia are a few of the most common acid reflux symptoms.

Heartburn. Also called acid indigestion. heartburn is a burning pain or discomfort that can move up from your stomach to the middle of your abdomen and chest. The pain can also move into your throat. Despite its name, heartburn doesn’t affect your heart .

Regurgitation. Another common symptom of acid reflux is regurgitation — or the sensation of acid backing up into your throat or mouth. Regurgitation can produce a sour or bitter taste, and you may experience a “wet burp” or even vomit some contents of your stomach .

Dyspepsia. Many people with acid reflux disease also have a syndrome called dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is a general term for stomach discomfort. Symptoms of dyspepsia include:

Symptoms of acid reflux may be a sign that stomach acid has inflamed your esophagus. When that happens, stomach acid can damage the lining of your esophagus and cause bleeding.

Although acid reflux is extremely common and rarely serious, don’t ignore your acid reflux symptoms. Making a few lifestyle changes and using over-the-counter antacids are often all you need to control acid reflux symptoms.

When Do Acid Reflux Symptoms Occur?

Acid reflux symptoms most often occur:

  • After eating a heavy meal
  • When bending over or lifting an object
  • When lying down, especially on your back

People who have frequent acid reflux symptoms most often experience them at night. Nighttime GERD also produces the most pain. However, the level of pain does not always indicate the degree of damage to your esophagus.

More than half of all pregnant women experience heartburn during pregnancy. Increased hormones and pressure from a growing fetus can combine to produce this acid reflux symptom. In most cases, heartburn goes away after delivery.

Continued

What Makes Acid Reflux Symptoms Worse?

Certain foods can make the symptoms of acid reflux worse for some people. To lessen your symptoms, try avoiding:

  • Citrus fruits
  • Chocolate
  • Caffeinated drinks or alcohol
  • Spicy, fatty, or fried foods
  • Garlic and onions
  • Peppermint
  • Tomatoes

Are There Potential Complications With Acid Reflux Symptoms?

Usually, acid reflux symptoms cause no complications. In a few cases, continued esophageal damage can lead to scarring, which may cause the esophagus to narrow. The narrowing creates strictures and makes it difficult to swallow. You may have dysphagia. a sensation that food is stuck in your esophagus. In some cases, normal cells in the lining of the esophagus may be replaced by a different type of cell. This is called Barrett’s esophagus. which can sometimes develop into cancer .

When Should I Call the Doctor With Acid Reflux Symptoms?

Be sure to call your doctor if you don’t get lasting relief from medications. Also call the doctor right away if you have any “alarm” acid reflux symptoms, such as these:

  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Blood in vomit
  • Black, tarry, or maroon-colored stools
  • Difficulty or pain with swallowing

Other acid reflux symptoms that should prompt a call to your doctor include:

Sometimes, people confuse the symptoms of heart attack with symptoms of acid reflux disease. That’s because pain in the chest can feel like heartburn. When in doubt, call your doctor.

  • Chest pain. pressure, or fullness lasting more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back
  • Pain or discomfort in your neck, shoulder. upper back, or jaw
  • Shortness of breath, with or without chest pain
  • Dizziness. lightheadedness, or nausea
  • Sweating along with chest pain

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Melinda Ratini, DO, MS on February 22, 2016

Sources

SOURCES:
The American College of Gastroenterology: “Heartburn or Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.” University of Maryland Medical Center: “Gastroesophageal reflux disease and heartburn.” National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse: “Heartburn, Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.”

American Academy of Family Physicians: “Dyspepsia: What It Is and What to Do About It.”

American Academy of Family Physicians: “Heartburn: Hints on Dealing With the Discomfort.”

© 2016 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


31/07/2017

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Before, During and After Cataract Surgery #cataract, #cataracts, #cataract #surgery, #surgery,


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Cataract Surgery and
Lens Implantation

Before, During and After Cataract Surgery

What happens before cataract surgery?

Prior to surgery, your eye care professional will do some tests. These will include tests to measure the curve of the cornea and the size and shape of the eye. For patients who will receive an IOL, this information helps your doctor choose the best type and refractive strength of IOL. Your doctor will likely ask, that on the day of surgery, you take all of your normal medications and may have special instructions regarding a light breakfast and sometimes not to eat or drink anything after midnight the morning of your surgery.

What happens during cataract surgery?

When you enter the hospital or clinic, you will be given eye drops to dilate the pupil. The area around your eye will be washed and cleansed and sterile
coverings will be placed around your head.

The operation usually lasts less than 30 minutes and is almost painless. Many people choose to stay awake during surgery, while others may need to be put to sleep for a short time. If you are awake, you will have an anesthetic to numb the nerves in and around your eye. You will not have to worry about holding your eye open because an instrument known as a lid speculum will hold your lids open.You will likely see light and movement during surgery, but the eye usually is not uncomfortable. You will be asked to hold your eye still during surgery if you have been given topical anesthetic (drops only).

After the operation, a sheild will be placed over your eye and you will rest for a while and often have a cup of tea or coffee and something to eat. Most people who have cataract surgery go home the same day. Since you will not be able to drive, make sure you make arrangements for a ride.

What happens after cataract surgery?

After surgery, your doctor will schedule exams to check on your progress. Usually your doctor will want to examine you the day following surgery, and then at various intervals after that.

You will also be given a specific schedule of eyedrops to help healing and control the pressure inside your eye. While being especially careful not to put pressure on the eye itself, the area around the operated eye should be gently cleansed in order to remove any excess eye drops or secretions. Ask your doctor how to use your medications, when to take them, and what effects they can have.

You will also need to wear an eye shield at night for the first few days to help protect the eye and avoid rubbing or pressing on your eye while sleeping. It is not necessary to wear the shield during the day and it is usually recommended that you wear your normal eyeglasses during the day. If the operated eye sees much better without the glasses you may wish to remove the eyeglass lens for the operated eye, or if preferred, you may choose not wear your glasses at all.

It’s normal to feel itching and mild discomfort for a while after cataract surgery. Some fluid discharge is also common, and your eye may be sensitive to light and touch. If you have discomfort, your eye doctor may suggest a pain reliever. After 1-2 days, even moderate discomfort should disappear. In most cases, healing will take about 6 weeks.

Some common problems can occur after surgery. These may include increased pressure, blurring from swelling, inflammation (pain, redness, swelling), and sometimes bleeding. More rare and serious problems include infection, loss of vision, or light flashes. If you experience increasing pain or a worsening of vision after surgery, you should contact your eye doctor. With prompt medical attention, almost all problems can be treated successfully.

When you are home, do not put your fingers in your eye. and do not to lift heavy objects. Lifting heavy objects increases pressure in the eye. You can walk, climb stairs, and do light household chores.

It is most important to take your drops exactly as directed and be sure to contact your doctor if you experience any problems.


31/07/2017

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Bladder Cancer Center: Symptoms, Causes, Tests, Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatments #bladder


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Bladder Cancer Health Center

What Happens

Bladder cancer is the rapid, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the bladder. Cancer usually begins in the lining of the bladder. The cancerous cells may spread through the lining into the muscular wall of the bladder.

Invasive bladder cancer may spread to lymph nodes. other organs in the pelvis (causing problems with kidney and bowel function), or other organs in the body, such as the liver and lungs .

Today on WebMD

What Is Bladder Cancer?

Learn more about this particular cancer.

Vitamin D & Bladder Cancer

What is the link between the two?

New Drug for Bladder Cancer

Read more about this FDA-approved medicine.

Advanced Bladder Cancer

Types of immunotherapy for metastatic bladder cancer.


28/07/2017

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34 Menopause Symptoms Treatments #menopause #treatment,menopause #treatments,treatment #for #menopause,34 #menopause #symptoms


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34 Menopause Symptoms Treatments

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While some women undergo the menopausal transition without incident, most will experience some combination of the 34 menopause symptoms. In fact, more than 70% of women experience menopause symptoms during the transition. The duration varies: for many women, the symptoms cease after the occurrence of menopause (typically in their fifties), yet other women will continue experiencing them well into old age. Though these menopause symptoms may be unpleasant, it is important to remember that menopause, rather than being an illness, is a natural. normal change in a woman’s body.

All menopause symptoms are connected to the hormonal fluctuations that take place during this transition. Because of this root cause, the go-to treatment for many years was hormone replacement therapy (HRT). However, the potential side effects of this medication has led to reconsideration of how it is prescribed. As a first recourse, a combination of healthy lifestyle adjustments and alternative medicine is often enough to address symptoms.

Three Approaches to Treating the 34 Menopause Symptoms

In the treatment of menopause symptoms, three tiers are typically considered: (1) Lifestyle Changes. (2) Alternative Medicine. and (3) Medications and Surgery. The general recommendation is that women begin with the first tier and move on to the others only if necessary.

1. Lifestyle Changes

Simple Lifestyle Changes

  • Avoiding caffeine and alcohol
  • Sleeping seven to eight hours per night
  • Consuming vitamins A, C, D, & E
  • Practicing breathing exercises
  • Eating a balanced diet
  • Exercising regularly
  • Staying hydrated
  • Quitting smoking

While this approach requires the most self-discipline, it is risk-free and also benefits overall health in addition to helping with menopause symptoms. Fundamentally, techniques for stress reduction. such as yoga or meditation, combined with regular exercise and an improved diet. can be a great natural menopause treatment. Diet in particular is key. Studies have shown that diets rich in foods that boost estrogen levels – such as soy, apples, alfalfa, cherries, potatoes, rice, wheat, and yams – are great menopause treatments. These foods contain compounds that resemble estrogen, so they mimic the function of estrogen in the body.

Other lifestyle changes a woman can make depend on the specific symptoms she is experiencing, though all of the above tips are good starting points to promote overall wellness. Some changes in habit, however, can be hard to implement, and not all lifestyle modifications directly address hormonal imbalance. Alternative medicine can help balance hormone levels safely and naturally.

2. Alternative Medicine

Many alternative treatments are proposed for menopause symptoms – such as aromatherapy, therapeutic massage, and biofeedback – but they range in effectiveness and cost. Of the varied alternative treatments, the only type that can address menopausal hormone imbalance directly is certain herbal supplements. They are also simpler to keep up with and require less time and money commitment.

Two types of herbal supplements are relevant in treating menopause symptoms: phytoestrogen and hormone-regulating supplements.

Phytoestrogenic supplements

These herbs, such as black cohosh, are rich in plant compounds that resemble estrogen and can function like the hormone in the body. However, after an extended period of time, the body can grow accustomed to having outside estrogen and will make less of its own, potentially leading to a net decline in estrogen levels.

Hormone-regulating supplements

These supplements, such as Macafem, don’t contain any estrogen, but rather provide nourishment to the endocrine glands. This helps the body produce estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones at balanced levels the body needs. This is a safe and effective way of balancing hormone levels.

From “Nature and Health Magazine,” Dr. Chacon says:

“Macafem nutrients help restore natural hormones in women. Unlike hormone drugs, which are basically resumed in taking synthetic hormones, Macafem acts totally different in your body. It nourishes and stimulates your own natural hormone production by inducing the optimal functioning of the endocrine glands.” Click on the following link if you want to read and learn more about Macafem .

Often, a combination of the above approaches is an effective and holistic route to take for most menopause symptoms. In some cases, though, symptoms may be severe or they may not respond to lifestyle changes and herbal supplements. In such cases, medication or surgery may be required, though these interventions inherently carry more risk.

3. Medications

Medications and sometimes even surgery for menopause symptoms often present the risk of side effects and tend to me more expensive than other approaches. The most common way to treat hot flashes and other menopause symptoms has been hormone replacement therapy. While it is very effective for certain symptoms, like hot flashes and vaginal dryness, it may not alleviate all menopause symptoms. Additionally, it may increase the risk of some serious diseases, as revealed in the following clinical study.

In 1991, the National Institutes of Health began the Women’s Health Initiative, the largest clinical trial ever performed in the U.S. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the risks and benefits of HRT. However, the trial was cut short in 2002 after the data showed that synthetic hormones can increase a woman’s risk of blood clots and stroke, as well as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The results were subsequently published in JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association .

Other medical treatments

Other medications for menopause symptoms are tailored to specific symptoms. One of the more widely-used therapies is antidepressants, which may help relieve hot flashes, depression, and severe mood swings. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases of severe symptoms, such as the removal of uterine fibroids that are causing irregular bleeding. It is necessary to consult a physician for a full diagnosis and for information on the risks and benefits of different treatments in each individual case.

Nowadays, many women are finding relief from their menopause symptoms using a combination of lifestyle changes and alternative treatments without the need for medications.

A Safe Way of Treating Menopause Symptoms

Making lifestyle changes:

  • Consuming estrogen-boosting foods
  • Exercising regularly
  • Getting adequate sleep

25/07/2017

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What is Alcohol Abuse? Alcoholism #what #is #alcohol #abuse, #alcohol #abuse


What is Alcohol Abuse?

Just as with any drug, people ask, “what is alcohol abuse?” It can be difficult to tell the difference between social drinking, moderate drinking and alcohol abuse, but the alcohol abuse definition comes down to one key point: is drinking causing problems in the person’s life?

When people start drinking, alcohol abuse is generally the furthest thing from their minds. Drinking is started recreationally, with friends and is associated with having a good time. This positive view of alcohol can be why it is so easy to slip into alcohol abuse. Often the thoughts of alcohol being a “good time” drug stop people from seeing the signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse.

What is Alcohol Abuse? – Alcohol Abuse Definition

The alcohol abuse definition is similar to alcoholism in that in both cases alcohol is causing harm to the drinker’s life and those around them. The difference is that those who abuse alcohol, but are not yet alcoholics, typically can put some limitations on their drinking and they have not yet become physically addicted to alcohol. The key to the alcohol abuse definition is not in the amount of alcohol consumed but on how it affects an individual. (See effects of alcohol )

What is Alcohol Abuse? – Signs of Alcohol Abuse

Because the alcohol abuse definition is general, the signs are unique for each person. Some of the signs will be similar to alcoholism but often to a lesser degree. Alcohol abuse is though, by definition, problem drinking. Signs that fit within the alcohol abuse definition include: iii

  • Repeatedly neglecting responsibilities due to drinking or hangover affects
  • Using alcohol in ways that are dangerous, for example, drinking and driving
  • Having repeated legal or financial trouble as a result of drinking
  • Continuing to drink in spite of its negative effects on relationships, work or other priorities
  • Drinking as a way to relax or de-stress
  • Drinking as a way to feel good, or simply not feel bad

What is Alcohol Abuse? – Effects of Alcohol Abuse

Long-term alcohol abuse can affect everything in a person’s life from their family, job and finances as well as almost every organ in the body. The most important part in understanding the alcohol abuse definition is determining whether it applies in your life so help for alcohol abuse can be sought as soon as possible.

It is important to understand that while not everyone who abuses alcohol goes on to become an alcoholic, alcohol abuse is one of the biggest risk factors to becoming an alcoholic.

More on Alcohol Abuse

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11/07/2017

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Mesothelioma Lawyer #mesothelioma #law #firm, #mesothelioma #lawyers, #asbestos #cancer, #symptoms #of


Welcome to Mesothelioma News Now

Your resource for the most comprehensive news on asbestos exposure and mesothelioma.

Here, mesothelioma patients and their loved ones can tap into the latest news for finding mesothelioma lawyers. asbestos attorneys and information about their legal options when selecting a suitable mesothelioma law firm.

By gathering the most current news and answers to the hard questions about asbestos-related cancer and other diseases associated with asbestos exposure, Mesothelioma News Now offers guidance on diagnosis, treatment, and coping options with asbestos lung cancer.

Mesothelioma is a highly aggressive, inoperable asbestos cancer, which effects close to 3,000 Americans every year. Mesothelioma caused by asbestos commonly occurs in the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall), but has also been found to form in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), the heart, and the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart).

Asbestos is a highly dangerous material often found in many older structures. Due to its abundance and fire-retardant attributes, asbestos was commonly used in shipyards, construction, manufacturing or automotive industries. The primary occupations that are at high risk of contracting mesothelioma include plumbers, electricians, roofers and painting contractors.

In addition, a recent report issued by the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs concluded that the above-average diagnosis rates of malignant mesothelioma in military personnel might have been inadvertently caused by their service for the country.

When disturbed, the particles can become airborne. Those exposed to airborne asbestos run an extremely high risk for mesothelioma.

The symptoms of mesothelioma can include:

  • Chest wall pain
  • Pleural effusion, or fluid surrounding the lung
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue or anemia
  • Wheezing, hoarseness, or cough
  • Coughing up blood

Due to its characteristically long latency period, symptoms of mesothelioma do not usually appear until up to 50 years after the first exposure to asbestos. Currently there is no known cure and only palliative treatments to ease the pain and suffering are available.

If you or a loved one is suffering from an asbestos cancer such as malignant mesothelioma, you need the legal expertise of an experienced mesothelioma attorney.

Mesothelioma lawyers and asbestos lawyers have the tools necessary to provide the superior legal counsel necessary, so that their clients can obtain full compensation through verdict or settlements.

Asbestos litigation involves a great deal of research and a keen knowledge about the law. For this reason, Mesothelioma News Now offers the information mesothelioma patients and their loved ones need to make an informed decision about their legal rights.


06/07/2017

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