Free CompTIA A Essentials: A Certification Exam Study: Comptia A Certification


FREE CompTIA A+ Certification Online School

Our FREE Comptia A+ Certification Exam Resources Academy provides free quality resources on A plus certification exam. Our CompTIA A+ school provides you online access to resources required to gather skills and knowledge to quickly become A+ certified. All resources and study material are totally free to all A+ certification candidates learners.

Comptia A+ Certification Exam Review

CompTIA A+ certification (also known as CompTIA A Plus) is an international industry credential that validates the knowledge of computer service technicians.

The skills and knowledge measured by the CompTIA A+ exams are vendor neutral and are derived from an industry-wide and worldwide job task analysis.
Two exams are necessary to be certified:

  • CompTIA A+ Essentials, exam code 220-701
  • CompTIA A+ Practical Application, exam code 220-702

Comptia A+ Exam Specifics:

Exam Cost: $168 each. Download more information on exam prices
Exam Location: You can register for the exam at any Pearson VUE and Thompson Prometric center.
Time Allocated: 90 minutes per exam
Total marks: 900
Minimum Pass Marks: 675 for CompTIA A+ Essentials, 700 for CompTIA A+ Practical Application on a scale of 100-900
Number Of Questions: 100 questions per exam.
Exam format: Linear format; computer-based test (CBT)
Prerequisites: None
Validation Period: As of January 1, 2011 the A+ certification will be valid for three years from the date the candidate completes their certification. A valid through date will appear on all certificates and certificate holder ID badge.
Score Report: Delivered immediate on test completion
Languages: The languages offered for the exams are English, Spanish, German, Turkish, Japanese, Traditional Chinese (Taiwan), Simplified Chinese, Portuguese, and soon to be added Korean.

Exam Pattern

The question types found on the A+ exam are:

  • Multiple Choice with Single answer: Student is required to select a single answer from a range of options (generally 4-5) by clicking on a radio button.
  • Multiple Choice with Multiple answer: Student is required to select a range of options. The number of options to select is specified.
  • Fill in the Blank: Student is required to select the missing text to complete the sentence (multiple choice style).

Benefits Of Passing Comptia A+ Test

The CompTIA A+ Certification Exam is considered the industry standard in terms of measuring a technicians hardware and software knowledge. Those possessing the certification are more likely to receive higher salaries and 85% of these individuals choose to further their careers. By adding more certifications to your portfolio the career paths become even more valuable and diverse.

Here are some of the benefits of pass the APlus exam.

  • Satisfaction: Passing A+ certification test is great morale booster. New employers will take you seriously and your current employer will take notice.
  • More Career Options: The possibilities for advancement are almost endless once you begin your career in the IT industry with the CompTIA A+ Certification. These include Help Desk Technician, PC Technician, Field Service Technician, Manufacturing etc
  • Higher Salary: On average, certified professionals make 5-15% than their non certified peers.

What are Company benefits for the A+ Certification

  • Increased customer satisfaction repeat business
  • Use of the A+ logo
  • Increased productivity due to skilled workers
  • Measurable competence standards
  • Simplified recruiting and hiring
  • Lower training costs

Read more about the benefits of passing the Comptia A+ test in our free articles section. You need to pass the A+ Essentials exam and one more test to become certified.

FREE CompTIA A+ Certification Test

Our many FREE online A+ practice tests will help you pass by familiarizing you with the material and the ensuring that you know the structure of the A+ test. Each A+ practice test is timed to give you a feel of the pressures of the real exam. The tests are designed to reflect your score on the final exam. Visit our A+ practice exam section and start your A+ practice now! We have many tests for the latest A+ Essentials exam. You can also take an A+ quiz at our quiz school or create your own flashcards

FREE A+ Study Guide

Our FREE A+ Study Guide is available to all! Visit the study guide section and start learning now!


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Find Water Leaks with Thermal Imaging, Acoustics and Tracer Gas #water


Leak Detecting Services

How to Find a Water Leak

Our highly trained engineers at L.D.S. Leak Detection Specialists Ltd. will choose the approriate testing and inspection process specifically chosen to suit your home or commercial business to find the leak.

Our engineers at L.D.S. carry all the latest technology in leakage detection. We have listed the main Leak detection methods and equipment below. Inspection cameras. Protimeter mms damp meter survey kits, pressure gauges both hydraulic and digital and salts diagnostic kits also form part of the L.D.S. engineers equipment.

Leak Detection Methods to Find A Leak

Acoustic profiling uses ground and pipe sensitive microphones to enhance the sound of the leak. This method can help in pinpointing precise leak location.

Is a way of finding and pinpointing leaks in water pipes. A leak in a pipe under pressure creates noise that travels through the pipe walls, the surrounding ground and along the contents of the pipe. Correlators are a very accurate sound testing device which are used to identify the acoustic frequency caused when a pipe is leaking. The correlator uses two identical sensors located along the pipe to calculate the leek location by logging the signal delay, sensor distance and the sound velocity.

Tracer Gas
The trace gas, a safe mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen, is introduced into the pipe with the suspected leak. The gas, is the lightest in the atmosphere and is made up of of small molecules. The gas will exit at the leak and make its way to the surface where it is detected using gas sensitive detection pobes.

Thermal Imaging
Thermography is the use of an infrared imaging and measurement camera to see and measure thermal energy emitted from an object. Thermography cameras can identify problem areas that can’t be seen with the naked eye, detecting hidden water leaks. The infrared inspection camera can detect not only hidden water leaks and their origin, but also moisture that cannot be physically reached with moisture meters. Read more

Pipe, Cable and Metal Detection and Tracing
Often the exact position of pipes and cables is unknown due to innacurate or non existant network plans. In order to carry out precise water leak detection and to avoid damage to utilities and operators during excavations, it is essential to know the precise position of all services. We use high performance equipment which can locate and trace buried pipes and cables.

Network Monitoring with Noise Loggers
Noise Loggers are used for early detection of leaks in water supply networks.The longer it takes to identify that a network is leaking the more revenue is lost and the greater the loss of precious water resources. In addition to the more conventional methods of leak detection the installation of permanent noise loggers has proved to be a cost effective tool in early identification of water loss. By permanently monitoring sections of the system, which have previously been proven leak free, it will alert you when a potential leak does develop. Read more .



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Website Speed Test #web #site #load #testing


dotcom- monitor website speed test


  • Internet Explorer
  • Firefox
  • Chrome
  • iOS
  • Android
  • Windows Phone
  • Blackberry

Internet Explorer 11

  • Internet Explorer 11
  • Internet Explorer 10
  • Internet Explorer 9
  • Internet Explorer 8
  • Internet Explorer 7
  • Emulate IE 11
  • Emulate IE 10
  • Emulate IE 9
  • Emulate IE 8
  • Emulate IE 7

iPad Mini

  • iPad Pro
  • iPad 1
  • iPad 2
  • iPad 3
  • iPad 4
  • iPad Mini
  • iPhone 4
  • iPhone 5
  • iPhone 6
  • iPhone 6 plus
  • iPhone 7
  • iPhone 7 plus
  • iPod Touch 4
  • iPod Touch 5

Google Nexus 4

  • Google Nexus 4
  • Google Nexus 5
  • Google Nexus 5X
  • Google Nexus 6
  • Google Nexus 6P
  • Google Nexus S
  • Google Nexus 10
  • Google Nexus 7
  • Google Nexus 7 2
  • Samsung Galaxy Note
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 2
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 3
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 5
  • Samsung Galaxy S
  • Samsung Galaxy S3
  • Samsung Galaxy S4
  • Samsung Galaxy S6
  • Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge
  • Samsung Galaxy S7
  • Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge
  • Samsung Galaxy Tab
  • Samsung Galaxy Tab 10
  • HTC Evo
  • HTC One X
  • HTC Sensation
  • Motorola Defy
  • Motorola Droid 3
  • Motorola Xoom
  • Sony Xperia S
  • Sony Xperia Z
  • Amazon Kindle Fire
  • Amazon Kindle Fire HDX 7
  • Amazon Kindle Fire HDX 8

Microsoft Lumia 950

  • Nokia Lumia 8XX
  • Microsoft Lumia 550
  • Microsoft Lumia 650
  • Microsoft Lumia 950

BlackBerry Z10

  • BlackBerry Z10
  • BlackBerry Z30
  • BlackBerry PlayBook


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Software Testing Effort Estimation #load #testing #example


This topic is a mixture of practical experiences and estimation theory (estimation science, theoretical knowledge). The purpose of this topic that the Test Leads, Managers or aspiring leads, managers must aware of all the test estimation techniques. This will helps in clearing interviews and in test planning as well. In the upcoming topics we will discuss the Guidelines and Principles for Test Estimations.

Introduction – Estimation is done often because it is expected to help in predicting how much will the project cost and when will the project get completed. Proper analysis and effort estimation is necessary for successfully planning for a testing project. Any flaw in critical estimation phase, results in missing the project deadlines, reduces ROI and loses of customer s faith. Remember – Bad estimation can lead to poor distribution of work.

There are different standard and non standard methods for test estimation. In many product based companies, people utilize non standardized but conventional estimation methods to make things work. These methods might have developed over a continuous period accommodating hidden factors like nature of application under test, environment, and risk factors for that specific product/market. But these methods can t be adopted as a generalized organization standard for a mature operation model.

Fact: Managers/Leads are not comfortable with software estimation work. But it is a required activity, so based on their past experience on one particular Product, Test Leads/Test Managers estimate the entire testing project (but for that Product only). Because they spent 1-2 or 2-3 or even more years on that particular product. But if they are asked to change company or shift to new product of entire different domain, then it is very hard for them to do estimation.
In this topic, we will discuss following methods for test estimation:
1. FIA (finger in the air) or best guess
2. Ad-hoc method
3. Experience Based – Analogies and experts
4. WBS
5. Delphi technique
6. Three-point estimation (successive calculation)
7. Function points / Test point Analysis
8. Percentage of development effort method
9. Percentage distribution
10. Use case point estimation method

Lets discuss one by one:
1. Best Guess This technique is purely guesswork and based on the some sort of experience.
The method is very common, but since it is based on your gut feeling, its uncertainty contingency is probably around 200% or even higher.

2. Ad-hoc method – The test efforts are based on tentative timeframe. The timeline set by managerial or marketing personnel or by client without any guess/experience. Alternatively, it is done until the budgeted finances run out.
This is very common practise in extremely immature organizations and has error margins of over 100% at times.

3. Experience Based – Analogies and experts:

  • Metrics collected from previous tests.
  • You already tested similar application in previous project.
  • Inputs are taken from Subject Matter experts who know the application (as well as testing) very well.

4. Work Breakdown Structure – It is created by breaking down the test project into small pieces. Modules are divided into sub-modules. Sub modules are further divided into functionalities and functionalities are divided in sub-functionalities.
Review all the requirements from Requirement Document to make sure they are added in WBS. Now you figure out the number of tasks your team needs to complete. Estimate the duration of each task.

5. Delphi technique Same as above WBS. Here functionalities and each task is allocated to each team member. Then team member gives estimate that they will take this much hours to complete the task.
Averagely, this technique gives good confidence in the estimation. This technique can be combined with other techniques.

6. Three-point estimation This technique is based on statistical methods In this technique, task is broken down into subtasks (similar to WBS) and then three types on estimation are done on each chunk

  • Optimistic Estimate (Best case scenario in which nothing goes wrong and all conditions are optimal.) = a
  • Most Likely Estimate (most likely duration and there may be some problem but most of the things will go right.) = m
  • Pessimistic Estimate (worst case scenario which everything goes wrong.) = b

Formula to find Value for Estimate (E) = a + (4*m) + b / 6
Standard Deviation (SD) = = (b – a)/6
More information about this technique can be find at:

7. Function Point/Testing Point Analysis: The FP technique is a direct indicator of the functionality of software application from the user’s perspective. This is the most accepted technique used to estimate the size of a software project.
This technique is a part of TMap. Base of this technique is function point technique. Here we convert function points into test points. In Test Point analysis, we usually carry out the following:

  • Dynamic Test Points
  • Static Test Points
  • Environmental Factor
  • Productivity Factor
  • Primary Test Hours
  • Control Factor
  • Total Test Hours

You can download the detailed self explained presentation here

In Testing, This estimation is based on requirement specification document, or a previously created prototype of the application. To calculate FP for a project, some major components are required.
The major components are:
Unadjusted Data Function Points: i. Internal Files, ii. External Interfaces
Unadjusted Transaction Function Points: User Inputs, ii. User Outputs iii. User Inquiries
Capers Jones basic formula:
Number of Test cases = [Number of Function Points] x 1.2
Total Actual Effort, TAE = (Number of Test cases) * (Percentage of development effort /100)
This method is done in a case when a detailed low level design document or requirement document is available (i.e measure of function point is available) Previous data for development and testing is available. But now days, when we are using agile and iterative methodologies to deliver projects, so most of the times all this documentation is not available.

8. Percentage of development effort method
Here the assumption is that a more complex business application may require more testing effort. The test effort required is a direct proportionate or percentage of the development effort.

Note: The development effort can be estimated using line of code (LOC) or function point (FP) which is not in the our scope.
If a previous project with 500 FPs required 50 man hours for testing, the percentage of testing effort is calculated as:
P = (50 / 500) * 100 =10%
For the current project with a development effort, say 1500 FPs, the testing effort is:
Total Actual Effort, TAE = 1500 * (P/100) = 1500 * (10/100) = 150 man hours.

9. Percentage distribution Here all the phases of SDLC are divided in parts and assigned effort in %. Like
Project management 7%
Requirements 9%
Design 16%
Coding 26%
Test (all test phases) 27%
Documentation 9%
Installation and training 6%
Now testing % is further distributed into all testing phases:

10.Use case point estimation method: Use case point (UCP) method is gaining popularity because now-a-days application development is modelled around use case specification. The test case development is normally kicked off after baseline use case. So the various factors in use case give a direct proportion to the testing effort.
Use case is a document which well specifies different users, systems or other stakeholders interacting with the concerned application. They are named as Actors . The interactions accomplish some defined goals protecting the interest of all stakeholders through different behaviour or flow termed as scenarios.

UCP Estimation Method in brief
1. Obtain unadjusted actor weight (UAW)
2. Determine unadjusted use case weight (UUCW)
3. Calculate unadjusted use case points (UUCP) UUCP = UAW + UUCW
4. Determine the technical/environmental factor (TEF)
5. Compute the adjusted use case point (AUCP) AUCP = UUCP * [ 0.65 + (0.01 * TEF)]
6. Arrive at final effort using a conversion factor Total Actual Effort = AUCP * CF

There can t be a sole hard and fast rule for estimating the testing effort for a project. There may be different other methods also which can be effectively used for the purpose. It is recommended to add on to the possible knowledge base of test estimation methods and estimation templates constantly revised based upon new findings.


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Application – Website Load Testing Tools #load #testing #a #website


Automated and On Demand Load Testing

“We recently rebuilt our website to provide Virgin America customers a far easier, more intuitive, and fun online booking experience. High capacity planning, stress testing our booking purchase flow, and overall performance optimization were critical before the big launch. Apica’s team worked hard to ensure our site lived up to its “faster, smoother, and more intuitive” promise. They handled all aspects of testing from start to finish, both helping us pinpoint our greatest bottlenecks and translating test metrics into actionable insight for our development team. Their advice saved us countless hours troubleshooting and helped us avoid any post-launch performance snafus.”
Tony Vela
IT Manager, Virgin America

“As a gaming company, we have extremely tight turnarounds for each release. Come launch day, if the game isn’t performing well, most players will never come back again. Apica not only provided ongoing load testing and valuable performance recommendations for our Call of Duty “Ghosts” companion app, but created a custom SDLC platform to augment our internal QA resources. You don’t want your developers writing tests – it is a huge resource constraint to expect them to do so in addition to their other work. Apica was instrumental in our resource planning.””
Keith Miller
Technology Director, Activision Beachhead Studio

“As our web site becomes an increasingly important part of our business, ensuring world class Web Performance becomes a must. Working with Apica has proven to be an excellent choice for us. They have specific expert knowledge of our platform, they have completeness in the service offering which minimises potential undetected problem areas, and finally, being a fast and agile company, they can give us the attention we need when we need it. What really counts in the end is the question whether we have better web performance now than before the project, and I can safely say – yes we do.”
Fadi Issa
Service Delivery Manager for Corporate Digital Media

The Apica team worked closely with our engineering team to simulate a very complex set-top box environment. They not only provided incredible loads and quick results but they also provided great insight on various configuration settings. If you want someone who is committed to your success then I highly recommend you go with Apica.
Roberto Monge
Lead Architect


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Penetration Testing – Cyber 51 #penetration #testing #and #vulnerability #assessment


Welcome to Cyber 51

Why should you get regular Penetration Tests?

Benefits of Security Testing

Why us?

The different services

Why should you get regular Penetration Tests?

Don’t wait until you become a Cyber crime victim…
…Contact us today for a free consultation and quotation

Our Services

Network Penetration Testing

More than 70% of all technical attacks are aimed at the Web Application layer. This service examines your web applications from a coding and implementation flaw perspective,

Wireless Penetration Testing

WiFi is no longer just a “nice to have” but mission critical component to many businesses. The Wireless Penetration Testing service covers all threat vectors of Wireless Networks

Social Engineering Services

Often Security is breached despite the fact that the latest perimeter defenses are in place. Why? An employee may simply plug a USB stick in which claims to contain Amazon vouchers

Social Engineering Services

These days more and more criminal activity is taking place online. Our services are aimed at businesses and individuals alike, who are in the need for informational intelligence

Web Application Penetration Testing

More than 70% of all technical attacks are aimed at the Web Application layer. This service examines your web applications from a coding and implementation flaw perspective,

Mobile Application Penetration Testing

Hardly any market is growing fast than mobile applications. This service covers all threat vectors concerning Mobile Apps. The audits contain Application Runtime Analysis,

Cyber Intelligence Services

Have you heard about the dark web? This is where a lot of illegal hacking activities take place. Has any of your confidential business data leaked out already?



Cyber 51 LLC is a U.S. based Cyber Security Consulting firm established by leading industry experts in 2009 and provides Security Auditing Services to both private sector and government clients. Our service is to discover IT security holes and vulnerabilities in customer networks and systems in order to protect IT infrastructures from threats and attacks.

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What is performance testing? Definition from #web #performance #testing #software


performance testing

Performance testing is the process of determining the speed or effectiveness of a computer, network. software program or device. This process can involve quantitative tests done in a lab, such as measuring the response time or the number of MIPS (millions of instructions per second) at which a system functions. Qualitative attributes such as reliability. scalability and interoperability may also be evaluated. Performance testing is often done in conjunction with stress testing .

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Performance testing can verify that a system meets the specifications claimed by its manufacturer or vendor. The process can compare two or more devices or programs in terms of parameters such as speed, data transfer rate. bandwidth. throughput. efficiency or reliability.

Performance testing can also be used as a diagnostic aid in locating communications bottleneck s. Often a system will work much better if a problem is resolved at a single point or in a single component. For example, even the fastest computer will function poorly on today’s Web if the connection occurs at only 40 to 50 Kbps (kilobits per second).

Slow data transfer rate may be inherent in hardware but can also result from software-related problems, such as:

Effective performance testing can quickly identify the nature or location of a software-related performance problem.

Getting started with use performance testing

To explore how performance testing is used in the enterprise, here are some additional resources for learning about performance testing:

What is performance testing? Determining what exactly performance testing is proves to be more difficult than you’d expect. Testing expert Scott Barber attempts to pinpoint a definition while recognizing that it may be impossible for the industry to settle on one set explanation.

Software testing fundamentals: Performance testing: Software performance testing is crucial to software development and very easy to mess up. These tips and expert opinions illustrate how to conduct performance tests effectively.

Three tips for successful application performance testing: Testing database-backed applications for performance can be a daunting task. But you can make it easier on yourself if you follow these three tips.

This was last updated in June 2007

Next Steps

Read about the top enterprise performance and load testing tools on the market and what you should consider before purchasing one for your organization.

Continue Reading About performance testing

Related Terms

integration testing or integration and testing (I ?>


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