Reflective Practice in Social Work #social #worker, #social #work, #clinical, #medical,


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Eye on Ethics

Reflective Practice in Social Work — The Ethical Dimension
By Frederic G. Reamer, PhD
April 2013

Recently, I received an urgent voicemail message from a hospital social worker: “Please get back to me as soon as possible. I have a meeting tomorrow morning with our head of human resources, and I’m very nervous about it.”

Later in the day, I connected with the social worker and learned the following: He had been employed by the hospital for seven years and had never been disciplined. His current predicament began when his immediate supervisor called him in to discuss concerns about possible boundary violations and an alleged inappropriate dual relationship with a hospital patient. The social worker explained to me that in his personal life he is actively involved in a community-based group of parents who adopted children from China. The group sponsors a wide range of activities to support and enhance the children’s ethnic identity. Through this involvement, the social worker said, he and his wife had become very friendly with several other adoptive parents.

About three weeks earlier, one of the parents who had become a good friend was admitted to the social worker’s hospital for treatment of a chronic, debilitating infection. The friend did not receive social work services. During the friend’s hospital stay, the social worker occasionally stopped by his room to say hello and inquire about the friend’s health. The patient’s attending physician had collaborated professionally with the social worker in other hospital cases and was well aware of the patient’s friendship with the social worker.

One afternoon during the patient’s hospital stay, the physician contacted the social worker and explained that the patient was distraught after having just learned that he was diagnosed with bone cancer. According to the social worker, the physician asked the social worker to visit the patient and offer emotional support. The social worker visited the patient in his room and spent about an hour helping his friend process the distressing medical news.

The social worker documented this patient encounter in the hospital chart. During a random quality-control review of social workers’ chart entries, the hospital’s social work supervisor read the note and became concerned because the social worker had not been assigned to provide social work services to this patient. The supervisor learned of the social worker and patient’s friendship and notified the director of human resources, who documented this “incident” in the social worker’s personnel record and asked to meet with the social worker.

The Nature of Reflective Practice
In 1983, the late scholar Donald Schon published his influential and groundbreaking book The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action . Schon’s thesis, based on his extensive empirical research, was that the most skilled and effective professionals have the ability to pay critical attention to the way they conduct their work at the same time that they do their work. Schon coined the terms “knowing-in-action” and “reflection-in-action,” which suggest that some professionals can take a step back and think hard about what they are doing while they are doing it. The concepts are akin to the widely used social work concept “use of self.”

Ordinarily the concepts of knowing-in-action and reflection-in-action are applied to practitioners’ cultivation and use of technical skill, whether in surgery, architecture, town planning, engineering, dentistry, or psychotherapy. In my view, and as the above case demonstrates, social workers would do well to extend the application of these compelling concepts to their identification and management of ethical issues in the profession. Ideally, effective practitioners would have the ability to recognize and address ethical issues and challenges as they arise in the immediate context of their work, not later when someone else points them out. Put another way, social workers would have a refined “ethics radar” that increases their ability to detect and respond to ethical issues.

Of course, the most important benefit is client protection. However, an important by-product is self-protection, that is, the increased likelihood that social workers will protect themselves from ethics-related complaints.

Implementing Reflective Ethics Practice
Certainly the hospital social worker who called me with panic in his voice would have benefited from reflective ethics practice and highly sensitive ethics radar. Had he reflected on the ethical dimensions of the boundary challenges that emerged when he interacted with his friend and hospital patient, it is likely that this well-meaning practitioner would have avoided his unpleasant encounter with the human resources department. The social worker’s decision to visit his friend was not the error; that was a humane and compassionate gesture. The error, rather, was not reflecting on his role in that moment and managing the boundaries carefully, including discussing them with his friend and his supervisor.

In my experience, ethics-related reflection-in-action entails three key elements.

Knowledge: Skillful management of many ethical dilemmas requires knowledge of core concepts and prevailing standards. Ethics concepts are addressed in professional literature and standards exist in several forms, including relevant codes of ethics, agency policies, statutes, and regulations. For example, the National Association of Social Workers’ Codeof Ethics includes explicit standards pertaining to boundaries, dual relationships, and conflicts of interest (especially section 1.06). It would have been best for the hospital-based social worker to consult relevant literature and standards with regard to conflicts that can arise when a social worker encounters a friend or social acquaintance in the work setting. The hospital’s personnel policies also prohibit dual relationships that involve conflicts of interest.

In some cases, although not all, statutes and regulations address ethical issues. In the United States, both federal and state laws address various ethical issues, such as confidentiality, privileged communication, informed consent, and social workers’ ethical conduct. Such laws would not have been particularly helpful in the hospital social worker’s case, but often they are helpful and critically important, for example, when social workers must decide whether to disclose confidential information without clients’ consent to protect a third party from harm or whether parental consent is necessary to provide services to minors who seek help with substance abuse but insist that this information be withheld from their parents.

Transparency: Reflective social workers who sense an ethical issue share their concern with supervisors, colleagues, and appropriate administrators. An effective way to protect clients and practitioners alike is to avoid any suggestion that the ethical issue is being handled “in the dark.” Such clarity demonstrates social workers’ good faith efforts to manage ethical dilemmas responsibly. When appropriate, clients should be included in the conversation.

Process: Although some ethical decisions are clear-cut, many are not. The hospital social worker who contacted me was unsure about the best way to manage his involvement with a good friend who had become a patient. Unfortunately, the social worker did not notify his supervisor about the dilemma or seek consultation. He documented his lengthy hospital-room encounter with the patient, but doing so in the client’s hospital chart created the impression that the social worker was functioning in his professional capacity, not as a friend. My hunch is that had the social worker notified his supervisor of his friendship with the patient and made clear that any contact with the patient occurred as a friend, the social worker may have avoided any adverse personnel issues. What I have learned is that many ethical decisions are not simple events; they require a considerable, often painstaking, process.

During the course of the profession’s history, social workers have refined the art of reflective practice. Historically, these skills have been applied primarily to clinical, policy, advocacy, and administrative functions. Clearly, reflective practice should extend to ethics as well.

— Frederic G. Reamer, PhD, is a professor in the graduate program of the School of Social Work, Rhode Island College. He is the author of many books and articles, and his research has addressed mental health, healthcare, criminal justice, and professional ethics.


08/09/2017

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MnSCU Farm Business Management – Welcome to Farm Business Management #minnesota,


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Welcome to Farm Business Management

In today s world, farming is a complex business with many facets. From the traditional family owned farm to the corporate farm, bookkeeping, profitability, tax planning and many other skills are required to complement traditional farming duties.

Agriculture is the number two industry in Minnesota, and Minnesota State Colleges and Universities offers many programs for farm owners and employees.

This site will help you explore the many possibilities that await.

Farm Business Management Education Programs

Minnesota State Colleges and Universities farm business management education programs are administered through eight college campuses at 46 different sites across the state. There are a total of 62 farm business management instructors.

Farm business management programs are designed to provide education to farm owners and operators or persons interested in farming. The purpose of the program is to assist students in meeting their business and personal goals. This is best accomplished through the use of quality records and sound business decisions. Effective financial management in the business is the best way for the business to maintain that competitive edge.

Instructors in Minnesota s farm business management education programs deliver the program using a variety of methods. The primary delivery method is through individualized instruction at the student s farming business. Instructors meet with the students on a regular basis to evaluate the business and develop individual educational plans. Instruction is also delivered in the traditional classroom, small group meetings, field trips and tours.

Farm business management education is managed at the state level by the senior system director for workforce development and customized training. The state of Minnesota is divided into six regions which are managed by five regional deans of management education.


27/08/2017

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Social Service Worker – Accelerated – Seneca – Toronto, Canada #social


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Social Service Worker

Ontario College Diploma

Program Description

The Social Service Worker (Accelerated) (SSWA) program provides you with the knowledge and skills required to make a meaningful contribution in the human service field. You will be challenged to examine your own beliefs and values, develop interpersonal communication skills and promote social justice, human dignity and equity. Your success in this program will be measured by both your ability to grow and change and your academic performance.

This is the accelerated version of the Social Service Worker (SSW) program. The accelerated program is demanding and requires students with good academic, time management and interpersonal skills.

Accelerated Delivery Mode

This is an accelerated program for those who completed a Bachelor of Arts in Social Sciences or other undergraduate degree. This program consists of a 7-week intensive summer semester (Semester 1) starting in early May each year, followed by a regular academic year commencing the day after Labour Day and concluding in mid-April (Semesters 2 and 3).

Field Work

As a student in SSWA, your field work will begin in semester two. Field work provides you with a valuable opportunity to apply your learnings to the workplace. In order to be eligible for field work, you will be required to meet the criteria as set out in the “Social Service Worker Program Student Code of Conduct”. In the placement, you will benefit from supervision and have specified hours, duties and accountabilities to both the college and agency representative. Field work is a mutually agreed contract for which you will be evaluated by the field placement supervisor. The minimum commitment is the successful completion of specific periods as set out in the Field Placement Student Contract.

Please note that students may be required to return to school during the Academic Advisement Week in January in order to do a block placement. The Social Service Worker program subjects are lecture and tutorial based, utilizing texts; some are practice-oriented and stress interpersonal skills and group dynamics. Students can expect to spend 20 to 25 hours each week on assignments, as well as two days per week in field placement in semester two and two days per week in semester three.

Provincial Registration

In order to practice in Ontario as a “Social Service Worker” or a “Registered Social Service Worker”, graduates must apply for registration in the Ontario College of Social Workers and Social Service Workers (OCSWSSW). Graduates of the SSW program will meet the education requirement for registration. For more information, please visit ocswssw.org .

Admission Requirements

  • A recognized Bachelor of Arts degree in Social Sciences from an accredited institution. Under special circumstances, graduates from other related program areas may be considered.
  • Academic equivalents for four social service or general education related credits and College English.
    • Students with credentials from a foreign institution must be evaluated course by course through WES or ICAS.
  • English proficiency at the post-secondary level.

Prior To Field Placement:

  • A current Police Vulnerable Sector screening:
    • Applicants living in the city of Toronto can expect to wait a minimum of 8-12 weeks to receive a Police Check.

Fees

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Your Career

Earn your Social Service Worker diploma in three semesters with this accelerated program. As a SSWA student, you will learn important social service work skills and be prepared to apply them to the real world. Your studies may lead you to employment in youth, women’s and ‘disabled’ persons’ programs, as well as in housing, community development, rehabilitation, mental health and many other settings. Upon graduation, you will be eligible for registration with the Ontario College of Social Workers and Social Service Workers (OCSWSSW).

Transfer Credit/Pathways

The Degree and Credit Transfer Office provides a number of services for students continuing their education at Seneca, and for graduating students considering degree transfer options.

Through transfer agreements and institution partnerships, graduates of this Seneca College program may be eligible for credit at various post-secondary institutions. Please refer to the Degree Transfer Guide for more information.

Transfer Credit may be granted for courses deemed equivalent to courses at Seneca that have been completed at recognized postsecondary institutions. Additional information is available online .

Important Academic Dates

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Courses

Please select the curriculum from the Academic Year in which you started (or will be starting) your studies. An Academic Year begins in September and ends in August of the following year.

2017/2018 Academic Year


07/07/2017

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Insurance companies in las vegas #home #hospice, #las #vegas #hospice, #hospite,


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Hospice offers medical care toward a different goal: Maintaining or improving the quality of life for someone whose illness, disease or condition is unlikely to be cured. Each patient’s individualized care plan is updated as needed to address the physical, emotional and spiritual pain that often accompanies terminal illness. Hospice care also offers practical support for the caregiver(s) during the illness and grief support after the death. Hospice is something more that is available to the patient and the entire family when curative measures have been exhausted and life prognosis is 6 months or less.

​History of Hospice

In Western society, the concept of hospice has been evolving in Europe since the 11th century. Hospice were places of hospitality for the sick, wounded or dying, as well as those for travelers and pilgrims. The modern concept of hospice, includes palliative care for the incurably ill given in such institutions as hospitals or nursing homes. but also care provided to those who would rather spend their last months and days of life in their own homes.

It began to emerge in the 17th century, but many of the foundational principles by which modern hospice services operate were pioneered in the 1950s by Dame Cicely Saunders. when she opened St. Christopher’s Hospice in 1967. St. Christopher’s Hospice in London emphasized the multi-disciplinary approach to caring for the dying, the regular use of opioids to control physical pain and careful attention to social, spiritual and psychological suffering in patients and families.

Within the United States. the term is largely defined by the practices of the Medicare system and other health insurance providers, which make hospice care available, either in an inpatient facility or at the patient’s home, to patients with a terminal prognosis who are medically certified at hospice onset to have less than six months to live.

Hospice care also involves assistance for patients’ families to help them cope with what is happening and provide care and support to keep the patient at home.

In 1969, Elisabeth wrote On Death and Dying. coining the 5 stages of death: Shock/Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression and Acceptance.


24/06/2017

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